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Some British History…

Some British History…

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Some British History…

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  1. Some British History… England and exploration – changes occur before they begin: from Catholicism to Protestant Henry VIII (1509-1547) • Married to Catherine, no son that lived 1509 • 1529 asked for divorce, church said no, defied married Anne Boleyn • severed ties with Rome, made himself head of English church, confiscated church land (church owned 25%, collected 320,000 lbs) • reform had already been brewing – Lutheranism, Calvinism • divorce from Catherine made 100 years of hostility with Spain Edward VI (1547-1553) Mary I (1553-1558) • tried to restore Catholicism to England

  2. British Monarchy Elizabeth I (1558-1603) • virgin queen, Virginia, England minor power (Spain and France) • England was ready to become Protestant, Catholics try to overthrow • Created a strong church of England, most Puritans were loyal • Sends group to Roanoke 1587

  3. British Monarchy James I (1603-1625) • Ended war with Spain • Opposed Puritan elimination of Bishop • Puritans split Separatists v. Non-separatists • 1606 December sent 100 men and 4 boys • Jamestown Charles I (1625 -1649) • Eliminate Puritan influence within the church • Dismissed Puritan ministers

  4. What was it like to live in England? during the 1500 and 1600s? • 70-80% peasants • taxes, rents to landlords and church officials were heavy • sharp rise in population from about 55 million in 1450 to 100 million in 1600 • towns were small with disease, dirt, lived close to one another • cottage industry – artisans, merchants formed guilds to control employment, prices, and sale of goods • more people, fewer jobs, higher prices • vagabonds – looking for work, food; government passed “poor laws” whipped vagrants and sent home

  5. PURITANS: Influence How do they influence New England? Puritans: Who are they? What do they believe? Where did they come from? 1. Martin Luther 1517 – 95 thesis, stop giving money for forgiveness • Protestant reformation – can’t buy but must earn salvation 2. John Calvin 1620s France believed in predestination • Salvation by God’s grace- work hard to receive that salvation not just good deeds • Salvation is the deliverance from evil, soul from sin • Stern moral code

  6. PURITANS: 3. A Puritan is a radical Calvinist • During the reign of James I group split: separatist v. non-separatist • Separatist believed had to leave corrupt Church of England – went to Holland and then on to the New World, afraid of assimilating into Dutch culture • Non-separatist believed they could reform the church from within • Later founders of the “City Upon the Hill” 1629 • Purify the Church of England

  7. PURITANS: Beliefs 4. Beliefs: • Live in accordance with God’s will; covenant with God – kept contract God would grant them saving grace; strong sense of purpose, willingness to sacrifice • Wine from god, drunkenness from the devil • Good behavior from everyone – individual and community or god would punish the entire community – storms and disease • Watched other members of community for swearing, drunkenness, unlawful sex, theft, assault, murder, idleness • Church membership prerequisite for political participation; legally required to attend church services • Land given based on family size, need and skills valued by the community • Parents are responsible for making their children adhere to God’s will

  8. Why did they leave? • Unemployment, low wages • Show charity was difficult • Fighting impulse to desert family, drink • Delaying marriage until 25 made temptation difficult • Difficulty dealing with James I

  9. Who was a Puritan? 1. Middle – landowning gentry, university educated clergy, intellectuals, merchants, shopkeepers, artisans, yeoman farm

  10. What is Congregationalism? • Self-governing congregations ignored authority of Anglican Bishop • Male saints – majority vote decided minister, elected a board of elders to handle finances, decided who was saint • All adult males to attend services and pay set rates (tithes) to support local churches • Conversion experience (public) • Read the Bible 1647 Old Deluder Act every town 50 or more households to create a school, first step to public education, did NOT require attendance, boys more than girls • Harvard in 1636 – ministers, but after completed studies

  11. Influence on New England • City Upon the Hill • John Winthrop – community founded on religion sense of reciprocity and charity

  12. Demise of the Puritans in NE • second generation not as willing to become saints, 1650 less than half • noone wanted to be grilled in front of relatives and friends • baptized only babies born to saints, grandchildren would be unbaptized • 1662 Half-Way Covenant – children of all baptized members even non-saints to receive baptism • church membership given to children but could not take communion or vote, left “half-way” • signaled end of Puritan way – religious fervor not the same, shrinking number of saints

  13. Chesapeake: Plantation Plantation – great house near a river, surrounded by trees and shrubs; laundry and smokehouse, kitchen, schoolhouse, further away were barns and slaves quarters • 50 acre headright system allowed for this to happen • by 1670s created a vast amount of freedmen who used to be servants wandered, dodging tax collector, working for wages, hunting, stealing; single, male, and armed • Wm. Berkley saw danger, governor from 1641-1652 and then again in 1660, worried about poverty-stricken freedmen…1676 fears justified Bacon’s rebellion

  14. Growing Tension Bacon’s Rebellion – fighting Indians which eventually attacked leaders, burned capital, drove out governor and friends; redistribute the wealth as much as possible • Attacked Indians blamed them for poverty: killed many, kept fur, wampum, and Indians for slaves • died of a fever and left group no long range plans • Berkley hung remaining leaders though King had pardoned • Shows tension in society; whites and Indians, land vs. labor class, shows power of economics and racism • Servants were still added every year in large numbers, still becoming free, still could not afford the land on which to sustain their freedom, sold their lives for several years to face the prospect of working on another man’s plantation – constant danger to planter • No slave rebellion ever had the same success • Once the interior became safer, the competition for land decreased and the freeman could once again acquire land

  15. Origins of Slavery: Phase I (1619-1640)– some indentured servants Phase II (1640-1660) – growing number of slaves, children inherited status Phase III (1660…) officially recognized slavery by creating laws - 1661 “lifelong, inheritable racial status” - 1705 strict legal codes defined place in society and set standards and code of conduct

  16. Why did slaves replace servants? • Indentured servants became more difficult to import because of a decline in the English population between 1650-1700 • Labor pool declines, wages increase • Monopoly of Royal African Company broken allowed for larger shipments of slaves • after 1690s slavery relaxed strains of Bacon’s Rebellion “maintain control over black race” • tobacco required large labor resource • high mortality rate callous about human life, once people lived longer slaves became the better investment • servants were treated like slaves except they received their freedom at the end of 4-7 years

  17. Caribbean Tradition of Slavery • 1640s code of conduct for non-whites • needed to produce sugar, large capital • sugar needed many workers • Africans could endure the conditions • Barbados 1661 “Guarantee decent treatment for slaves” • No definition of adequate food, shelter; women – dress, men-pants, hat • Lived in shacks, worked to exhaustion • No legal rights – no trial by jury, no guarantee of fair hearing • No restrictions on punishments • Arrived in 20s , lived 10 years, kept native traditions • Barbados eventually imported to Carolina’s

  18. Why did slavery remain? • they could safely be denied rights that the English could demand • could be subjected to harsh punishments without recourse in the courts • could be kept unarmed, unorganized, unable to resist • color made it difficult to escape • it allowed the planter to grow large amounts of crops without creating a dangerous class of poor, discontent freedmen • unlike in the Caribbean, slaves remained in families and eventually the number of slaves increased naturally; slaves did have some semblance of a family life

  19. MERCANTILISM: Economy of Colonies Mercantilism: economic subordination of the colony to the mother country • Mother country exports finished products to the colony • Guaranteed market • Increases number of jobs available • Mother country imports raw materials from colony • Preserves natural resources • Exploits resources of colony

  20. Mercantilism • Mother country seeks favorable balance of trade • Exports more than imports • Imposes regulation to ensure proper balance • Regulations 1651 null and void then 1660 and 1663 • No foreign trade for the colony (Navigation Acts) • Must pass through mother country, enumerated goods (sugar, cotton, indigo, dyewoods, ginger, tobacco) • All trade must move on mother country’s ships, crews ¾ British • All goods going to colonies must come from Britain

  21. Mercantilism • No colonial industry (Woolen/Hat/ Iron Acts) • Colony remains depended on mother country • Colony should not become dependent on foreign trade • Regulatory Taxation • Protective tariffs on foreign imports to the colony • Revenue raised for the mother country • No colonial self-government • Mother country avoids challenges to its economic authority • Colonies can’t enact pro colonial/anti-mother country laws

  22. Failures of Mercantilism - Free trade was already established • Migration incentives promised economic opportunity • Religious and political strife at home • absence of leadership and attention paid • legislation was late in coming • absence of a foreign office • refusal of appointed officials to travel to the colonies • lacked first hand knowledge • officials were bribed or proved incompetent - different colonies had different problems

  23. Effects of the Colonies a. British ships i. 1750s 1/3 of vessels were American owned ii. diversified the North, more self-sufficient, ship-building iii. created major port cities, Philadelphia was 2nd largest port 1770 b. enumerated goods i. No restriction on grain, livestock, fish, lumber, rum 60% colonial exports ii. used duty money to encourage production of silk, iron, dyes, hemp, lumber iii. forbade colonies from textiles, large scale clothing iv. no profitable clothing until 1820 v. free to produce iron

  24. Restoration Restoration, of Charles II, brought Navigation Acts • NE did not fit into mercantilism well, farmers, fisherman fed West Indies but nothing else of importance….. • Fur until depleted animals • Lumber a minor resource • Rocks with no valuable minerals • Resources limited so they distributed what the rest of the world wanted, competed with the mother country • Disobedience was more profitable – merchant work directly with French could undersell merchant who took goods to England and then to colonies because of duty • NE looked wearily at the king and his policies to bring them under his control • 1673 passed plantation duty leaving plantation pay, Holland instead of Boston already had paid duty, did not stop smuggling • easier to control the Dutch than Englishmen