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The Mexican Mural Movement Los Tres Grandes : Diego Rivera (1886-1957)

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The Mexican Mural Movement Los Tres Grandes : Diego Rivera (1886-1957)

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  1. The Mexican Mural Movement Los Tres Grandes: Diego Rivera (1886-1957) José Clemente Orozco (1883-1949) David Alfaro Siqueiros (1896-1974)

  2. General Porfirio Díaz (1830-1915)Left: 1867, during Mexico’s fight against French interventionRight: 1908 President of Mexico (from 1876 to 1880 and from 1884 to 1911)

  3. Mexican Revolution 1910-1920 Jose Vasconcelos Secretary of Education under Obregón Álvaro Obregón, President 1920–25

  4. (left) Diego Rivera (Mexican 1886-1957) The Architect, o/c, 1914(right) Pablo Picasso, Three Musicians, o/c, 1921Analytic Cubism

  5. Diego Rivera, Woman at the Well, 1913 National Gallery of Art, Mexico City

  6. Diego Rivera, Zapatista Landscape – The Guerilla, 1915

  7. Diego Rivera, Creation, 1922 - 23, encaustic and gold leaf, Amphitheater Bolivar, National Preparatory School, Mexico City

  8. Diego Rivera, Creation, 1922 - 23, encaustic and gold leaf, Amphitheater Bolivar, National Preparatory School, Mexico City

  9. Rivera, Creation, 1922-23 (right) early Renaissance Allegory of Good Government, fresco detail, Sienna, 1338, by Ambrigio Lorenzetti. Rivera had traveled to Italy in 1920 to study Italian Renaissance art

  10. “Only why do the artists of this continent think that they should always assimilate the art of Europe? They should go to the other Americans for their enrichment, because if they copy Europe it will always be something they cannot feel because after all they are not Europeans.” - Diego RiveraPan-American Unity mural for San Francisco City College, 1940

  11. (renderings of) Murals of warrior kings from the Temple of the Jaguars, Chichen-Itza (c. 900 CE), visited by Diego Rivera and Jose Vasconcelos in 1921. Toltec and Maya

  12. Diagram of a ball court stone relief from Chichen ItzaAt the invitation of Vasconcelos, Rivera traveled to Yucatán in 1921 to view the Maya pre-Conquest sites of Chichén Itza and Uxmal.

  13. In 1927 Rivera traveled to the Soviet Union as a delegate from the Mexican Communist Party (joined in 1922) to attend the tenth anniversary of the Russian Revolution. Watercolor sketches for a mural in the Red Army Club, Moscow, which he never painted. Rivera’s communist views, like those of Orozco and Siqueiros, were independent of party doctrines.

  14. Rivera at the Education Ministry, Mexico City, with one of his murals, 1924. Project began in 1922 and finished in 1928

  15. Rivera, (left) with Frida Kahlo, 1930, (right) In the Arsenal, 1928, Fresco, approx. 79 7/8" x 13' 6". South wall, Patio de las Fiestas (Courtyard of Fiestas), third floor, Secretaría de Educación Pública, Mexico City. Frida Kahlo, center, distributes arms. In the right hand side Tina Modotti holds an ammunition belt. Text on the red banner is from a corrido, a song of the agrarian revolution.

  16. Compare (left) Rivera, In The Arsenal, fresco detail, 1928 Giotto, Mourning of Christ, c. 1305, fresco detail, Cappella dell'Arena, Padua

  17. "Giotto was a propagandist of the spirit of Christianity, the weapon of the Franciscan monks of his time against feudal oppression, Bruegel [Flemish Northern Renaissance Painter, C.1525-1569] was a propagandist of the struggle of the Dutch artisan petty bourgeoisie against feudal oppression. Every artist who has been worth anything has been a propagandist. . . I want to be a propagandist of Communism and I want to be it in all that I can think, in all that I can speak, in all that I can write, and in all that I can paint. I want to use my art as a weapon. . ." The Revolutionary Spirit in Modern Art, Diego Rivera, 1932

  18. Rivera, Wall Street Banquet, 1928, fresco, 2nd floor, Ministry of Education, MC

  19. Diego Rivera. Death of the Capitalist. 1928. Fresco. South wall, Courtyard of the Fiestas, Ministry of Education, Mexico City, Mexico. “These works that call themselves revolutionary, and that in the cases of Rivera and Siqueiros expound a simple and Manichean [dualistic] Marxism, were commissioned, sponsored and paid for by a government that was never Marxist and ceased being revolutionary…this painting helped to give it [the government] a progressive and revolutionary face.” - Octovio Paz

  20. Leon Trotsky, Diego Rivera, and French Surrealist writer, André Breton, in Coyoacán in 1938

  21. Diego Rivera.The History of Mexico - The Ancient Indian World. 1929-35. Fresco. North wall, National Palace, Mexico City, Mexico. The topic of this mural is the history of Mexico from the fall of Teotihuacan, about 900 BCE to the beginning of the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas in 1935. http://caliban.lbl.gov/panoramas/mural.jpg

  22. Diego Rivera, The History of Mexico. 1929-35. Fresco. West wall, detail of central arch, National Palace, Mexico City, Mexico “… the great issue of whether ‘Mexico’ was one nation or two.” (Indian or/and European)

  23. Diego Rivera. The History of Mexico. 1929-35. Fresco. West wall, left inner arch, National Palace, Mexico City, Mexico

  24. Rivera, The History of Cuernavaca and Morelos,1929-30. Fresco. Cortez Palace, Cuernavaca, Mexico

  25. Cortez Palace, Cuernavaca, Mexico. The Palace dates back to the colonial era; built in 1533, it served as the summer residence of Hernan Cortes

  26. Rivera, The History of Cuernavaca and Morelos - The Enslavement of the Indian and Constructing the Cortez Palace. Detail. 1929-30. Fresco. Cortez Palace, Cuernavaca, Mexico.

  27. Diego Rivera, The History of Cuernavaca and Morelos - The Enslavement of the Indian and Constructing the Cortez Palace. (detail) 1929-30. Fresco. Cortez Palace, Cuernavaca, Mexico

  28. Rivera, The History of Cuernavaca and Morelos: Crossing the Barranca (ravine)1929-30, fresco detail, Cortez Palace, Cuernavaca, Mexico.

  29. Views of the Garden Court of the Detroit Institute of Art with Diego Rivera’s mural, Detroit Industry

  30. North wall, Detroit Industry, fresco, 1932, gift of Edsel Ford

  31. Detroit Industry, detail of North Wall showing laborers of all races working in unison for the good of industry.

  32. "The yellow race represents the sand, because it is most numerous. And the red race, the first in this country, is like the iron ore, the first thing necessary for the steel. The black race is like coal, because it has a great native esthetic sense, a real flame of feeling and beauty in its ancient sculpture, its native rhythm and music. So its esthetic sense is like the fire, and its labor furnished the hardness which the carbon in the coal gives to steel. "The white race is like the lime, not only because it is white, but because lime is the organizing agent in the making of steel. It binds together the other elements and so you see the white race as the great organizer of the world." - Rivera Detroit murals south wall with figures representing the white race (“lime,” top left) and Asian race (“like sand,” right).

  33. Rivera’s enthusiasm for industry and machines as gods of the modern world is evident in allusions to Aztec Earth goddess, Coatlique

  34. Rivera, Diego, A Dream of a Sunday Afternoon in Alameda Park, 1947-48Fresco, Alameda Hotel, Mexico City. Now located in the Diego Rivera Museum on Alameda Park. 45’ X 15’ Current location

  35. Diego Rivera,Dream of a Sunday Afternoon in Alameda Park (detail), 1948, fresco, Museo Mural Diego Rivera, Mexico City, Mexico

  36. Diego Rivera, Man, Controller of the Universe (detail) 1934, fresco, Museo del Palacio de Belas Artes, Mexico City. Recreation of destroyed Rockefeller Center Mural, NYC

  37. Diego Rivera, Man, Controller of the Universe (detail with Lenin), 1933, fresco

  38. Rivera, The Making of a Fresco Showing the Building of a City, 1931, fresco, San Francisco Art Institute

  39. Diego Rivera’s San Francisco Institute fresco

  40. Diego Rivera. Allegory of California, 1930-31. Fresco. Mural on wall and ceiling of main staircase between tenth and eleventh floors. Exchange's Luncheon Club/City Club, Pacific Stock Exchange Tower, San Francisco

  41. Rivera, Pan-American Unity, 1940, fresco, City College of San Francisco, 5 panels

  42. David Alfaro Siqueiros (Mexican Social Realist Muralist, 1896-1974), Tropical America (detail) Oliveras Street, Los Angeles, 1932,Fresco applied with an air gun on cement, 19.7’ x  98.4' Christian iconography – paradox of Mexican Communism

  43. The center of Siqueiros'mural depicts an indigenous Mexican peasant lashed to a double cross beneath a symbol of American imperialism — the American eagle

  44. Siqueiros at work on Tropical America mural during his expulsion from Mexico in 1932 for radical political militancy. Siqueiros came to Los Angeles for six months and created three murals. One remains.

  45. Siqueiros’ AméricaTropical fresco with right section whitewashed two weeks after completion in 1932. Siquerios visa was revoked and the artist was sent back to Mexico

  46. Siqueiros, New York City Experimental Workshop, 1936

  47. David Alfaro Siqueiros, Echo of a Scream, 1937, enamel on wood, 48/36” NYC MoMA

  48. David Alfaro Siqueiros, Collective Suicide (detail),1936, Enamel on wood with applied sections, 49" x 6‘, The Museum of Modern Art, New York.

  49. Siqueiros, Ethnography, 1939, enamel on composition board, 122 /82 cm. NYC MoMA