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Smog Cities

Smog Cities

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Smog Cities

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  1. Smog Cities Global Geography Seminar Gabrielle and Alex May 28th, 2013

  2. Key Terms Inversion  A deviation from the normal change of an atmospheric properly with altitude. Inversion can lead to pollution by trapping smog close to the ground. Emission Standards Specific limits set to regulate the amount of pollutants released into the environment by automobiles Fossil Fuel Fuels formed by natural processes such as decomposition of buried dead organisms.

  3. Inversions • Valleys or in places partially surrounded by hills or mountains. • air blows over the hills, it is heated as it is compressed into the side of the hills • warm air comes over the top, it is warmer than the cooler air of the valley.

  4. What is Smog? • Air pollution • “Smoke” + “Fog” = Smog

  5. Industrial Smog • Occurs when smoke and sulfur dioxide (SO4) produced from burning coal • Yellowish brownish • Ground level • Acid Rain

  6. Photochemical Smog • Chemical reaction between sunlight, NO2 ,and VOCs • VOCs ( Volatile organic compounds) • Organic chemical • High vapour pressure • Room- temp • Airborne particles • Ground-level zones • Primary pollutants – sunlight, causing hazardous 2nd pollutants

  7. Modern Smog • Not visible • Coal burning • Caused by automobiles emissions

  8. Natural Causes • Volcanos erupt • Same chemical output as smog • Volcanic eruptions as vog • Natural occurrence

  9. Los Angeles

  10. L.A. Smog Problem • Ranked the smoggiest city in America • 1/3 days experiences unhealthy air • Two dozen days of the year the city faces “red-alert days”

  11. Geographic Factors of L.A • L.A sits in a valley surrounded by mountains • Bowl for holding smog

  12. Affects on the citizens • “Over 700,000 people in our city suffer from asthma, including 165,000 children. Environment California’s report confirms what we already know - that the Los Angeles area ranks among the highest in the nation for poor air quality. This is completely unacceptable.” • Schools have to shut down

  13. Video •

  14. Mexico

  15. Mexico Smog Problem • Improving • Affects millions

  16. Geographic Factors of Mexico • Mexico city is also situated in between two hills burdening the city

  17. Mexico Efforts • Take older vehicles odd the road • Regulation for new vehicles • Cleaner low sulfur fuels • Public transportation (traffic) • Emission testing • Licence plate

  18. Mexico Efforts • When UV light cuts through smoggy air and hits the titanium dioxide on the tiles • A chemical reaction occurs between the tiles and chemicals in the smog--mono-nitrogen oxides, or NOx. • the end result of the reaction is that the smog is broken down into small amounts of less noxious chemicals, including calcium nitrate (a salt used in fertilizers), carbon dioxide, and water. • The titanium dioxide itself remains unaffected, so it can keep making reactions happen.

  19. Video •

  20. Health effects of smog • Respiratory illness • Death • Asthma • Dizziness • Sore eyes, throat

  21. How we can help • WHAT YOU CAN DO: Fill your gas tank during cooler evening hours to cut down on evaporation. Avoid spilling gas and don't "top up" the tank. Replace the gas tank cap tightly. • Why? Smog-related emissions don't just come from the tailpipe. Evaporation of gasoline from filling up the gas tank releases smog-causing VOCs into the air. Spillage is a major source of O3 pollution. • Did you know? Vapours from evaporating gasoline (those wavy lines that appear in the air while you are filling the tank) can account for two-thirds of the VOC emissions from gasoline-fuelled vehicles on hot summer days. • WHAT YOU CAN DO: Reduce your outdoor use of VOC-releasing products such as oil-based paints, lawn pesticides, car cleaning solvents and waxes. • Why? These products dry through evaporation of the contained solvent, releasing strong-smelling VOCs, which contribute to smog formation. • Did you know? By 2010, solvent use in Ontario will contribute more than twice the amount of VOCs than from all transportation, which includes cars, trucks, aircraft and marine vehicles.

  22. References • "Bid to Block California's A.B. 32 Emission Standards Funded by Big Oil." AutoblogGreen. Ed. Eric Loveday. N.p., Mar.-Apr. 2010. Web. 27 May 2013. • "Smog City." Smog City. NP, n.d. Web. 15 May 2013 • Wong, Raymond. "DVICE." DVICE. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 May 2013. • Probe, Pollution. "What You Can Do to Reduce Smog." At Home Solutions. Canadian Living, n.d. Web. 18 May 2013. • Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality." Making Smog. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 May 2013.