Passing the Georgia High School Graduation Testand the State End of Course Test Review Material for GHSGT and SEOCT Prepared by Michelle Drayton and Marjorie Seckinger ECHS – 2007-2008 United States HistoryPart Two U.S History Since 1865
SSUSH10 The student will identify legal, political, and social dimensions of Reconstruction. • Reconstruction – the act of bringing the South back into a political union with the North. • Problems resulted from power struggle between the executive and legislative branch over who would control the reconstruction process.
Presidential Reconstruction • After the assassination of President Lincoln, Andrew Johnson became president. • He also believed that the South had not seceded from the Union • Wanted to treat the South as in rebellion • Wanted to restore the Union as quickly and painlessly as possible
Congressional Reconstruction • Controlled by “Radicals” who wanted to punish the South for the war and… • Called for strict readmission standards • Wanted to restructure the South’s political power away from the Planters
10% Plan – Presidential Plan • 10% of the voting population must swear allegiance to the Union • Congress felt that this plan was too lenient and refused to admit representatives from the South into Congress
Radical Reconstruction • Divide the South into military districts with military commanders instead of elected officials • Must ratify 14th Amendment –equal protection of all citizens – gave citizenship to former slaves • Grant Black citizens the right to vote (15th Amendment) • Former Confederate officials could not hold office
Freedman’s Bureau • Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. • Furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs. • Able to attend school for the first time • African Americans started newspapers, served in public office, and attended new colleges and universities established for them. • Morehouse College -
Reconstruction • Congress did not provide African Americans with land • With few skills – many returned to work on farms as sharecroppers and tenant farmers. • Reconstruction comes to an end in 1877 when the last state was re-admitted to the Union • African Americans were left with few protections against laws that discriminated against them (Jim Crow Laws)
13th, 14th, 15th Amendments • Known as the Civil War Amendments • 13th – abolished slavery • 14th – defined citizenship to include African Americans and guaranteed that no citizen can be deprived of rights without due process • 15th – protected the right of African Americans to vote • These amendments were designed to protect the rights of African Americans – however – they were not effective in preventing discrimination and abuse of voting rights.
Black Codes and the KKK • Founded in 1866 – the Ku Klux Klan used terrorism and violence to scare blacks and other minorities. • Tried to prevent Reconstruction governments from giving power to blacks. • Black Codes – were restrictions on former slaves, passed by Southern governments – Could not own weapons, meet together after sundown, etc. • Grandfather Clause – poll taxes – literacy tests were all ways in which blacks were denied the right to vote
Impeachment of Andrew Johnson • President Johnson had been a supporter of Lincoln’s plan of reconstruction which would have re-admitted Southern states w/o restrictions • Congress attempted to weaken Johnson’s power by passing several laws that made Reconstruction fall under their control – • Congress wanted weaken his power even more – brought impeachment charges against him even though the evidence was weak • Johnson escaped a conviction by one vote in the Senate but was weakened by the process -
SSUSH11 The student will describe the growth of big business and technological innovations after Reconstruction • After the end of Reconstruction – people wanted to move west • Congress helped that movement by loaning millions of dollars to railroad companies to build railroads for the west coast • Railroads made it possible for the spread of population to the west coast
Transcontinental Railroad • Union Pacific - Began in Omaha and went west • – Central Pacific – Began in Sacramento and went East • Railroads met in Utah to form the first trans-continental railroad. • Guilty of corruption in their business by overcharging the government • Use cheap Chinese labor – conditions were hazardous –low pay – labor was exploited by the wealthy
Railroads • Had impact on other industries • Farming – surplus supplies of grain and animal products could shipped to market faster • Towns grew up around junctions of railroads • Steel industries grew to supply iron for the building of the railroads • Railroads organized their business around owning major supply of raw materials for building and running the railroads as well as owning the railroad company • Railroads were the first of the “big” business organizations – led to growth of monopolies
Steel Industry • Andrew Carnegie made money in the steel industry • Used business tactics to drive the competition out of business • Introduced new process to make steel cheaper and stronger • Leading industry in aiding the spread of the Industrial Revolution
John D. Rockefeller • Rockefeller, Carnegie, Vanderbilt were called “Robber Barons” because the got wealthy by exploitation and ruthlessness • Extreme wealth and lavish lifestyle • Held great economic and sometimes political power – caused government to stay out of their business • Set prices where they liked, drove competition out of business • Part of the Gilded Age -
Monopolies and Trusts • Trusts are companies that combine for the purpose of reducing competition an controlling prices • Monopolies when one company or individual owns and controls all of an industry, a raw material, or a means of production
Inventions Thomas Edison – one of the most important inventors in American history • Light bulb • Motion picture • Phonograph • Impact on American Life: - first lab set up for scientific experimentation, - created new industries – led to improvements in living conditions and the expansion of factory jobs
SSUSH 12 The students will analyze important consequences of American industrial growth. • Ellis Island – entry point for inspection of immigrants coming into the U.S. • The second major wave of immigration to the U.S. – 25 million new immigrants • Changed from Western and Northern Europe to Southern and Eastern Europe • Came to escape poverty – persecution • -
New Immigration • Language barriers and cultural differences produced mistrust by Americans • Most settled in crowed conditions – tenements for factory workers • Settled in urban areas - close to groups of other immigrants from the same country • Fear of new immigrants led to new call for restrictions on immigrants • Led to nativist movement – favoring the interest of native born people over that of foreign born people
American Federation of Labor and Samuel Gompers • Began in 1886 – first successful labor union • Samuel Gompers – organizer and first president • It is a combination of different unions into one large organization • Represented skilled workers (cigar makers) • Worked on collective bargaining – to reach agreement on pay, hours, and conditions • Successful strikes helped raise the pay and improve the conditions of factory workers
Growth of Western Population – Wounded Knee and Sitting Bull • As white men moved west to settle – the Native Americans were pushed into smaller and smaller areas • The destruction of the buffalo and constant battles with settlers forced them to abandon their traditional plains life
Growth of Western Population – Wounded Knee and Sitting Bull • Sitting Bull – leader of Hunkpapa Sioux never signed an agreement to move his tribe to a reservation – finally forced to surrender and live on a reservation – • Wounded Knee – 300 starving Sioux Indians were killed when a fight broke out between the Calvary and the Indians • Brought the Indian Wars to a bitter end
Pullman Strike • Strikes were often violent • Strike begins after the Pullman Company had drastically wages and refused to negotiate with the workers • Workers began to strike and sponsored a boycott of Pullman Trains • Pullman hired strikebreakers – had the leaders of the strike jailed • Workers were fired and blacklisted so that they could not work in the railroad industry again.
SSUSH 13 The student will identify major efforts to reform American society and politics in the Progressive Era. • Upton Sinclair – wrote “The Jungle” • Exposed unsanitary conditions in the Chicago’s meat processing plants • “Muckrakers” – named because the raked up the “muck” of the business world • Meat Inspection Act – and Pure Food and Drug Act during Teddy Roosevelt’s Administration
Social Reforms • Ida Tarbell – muckraker – wrote “The History of Standard Oil Company” - • Exposed the ruthless business practices of Standard Oil Company • Her writing along with others made public aware of abuses occurring in trusted services and companies.
Women in Reform Movements • Jane Addams – One of the most influential members of the settlement house movement –19th century reformer who responded to the call to help the urban poor • Part of the reform movement known as Social Gospel – • Hull House – settlement house established in Chicago, ILL. - educational, cultural, and social services • Instrumental in cultivating social responsibility
Need for Civil Rights Reforms • Jim Crow- created a racial caste system in the South- Prevented African Americans from voting and created segregated facilities • Plessy vs. Ferguson – 1896 – Supreme Court decision that upheld that segregation (separation of the races) was lawful as long as separate facilities were and services equal commonly known as “separate but equal” principle
NAACP • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People • Organization founded in 1909 – by W.E. B. DuBois to draw attention to the problem of discrimination and promote full racial equality • Founded by a number of African Americans and a number of prominent whites in New York.
Progressive Reforms • Reforms of Elections • Initiative was instrumental in giving citizens the power to create laws. (A bill originated by people rather than by lawmakers on the ballot) • Referendum – a vote on the initiative – allows voters to accept or reject the initiative. • Recall – enables voters to remove public officials from elected positions by forcing them to face another election before the end of their term. • Direct Elections – 17th Amendment – the people would elect U.S. Senator instead of state legislators
Labor Laws • In response in to poor working conditions – workers organized into labor unions • Improved wages, work week, and child labor laws • Work place safety standards • Minimum age for work
SSUSH114 The student will explain American’s evolving relationship with the world at the turn of the century. • Chinese Exclusion Act – 1882 law passed by Congress banning entry into the U.S. to all Chinese except – students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials for 10 years • Extended in 1902 – repealed in 1943 • Response to Nativism -
Immigration • Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907-1908 – Japan’s government agreed to limit immigration of unskilled workers to the U.S. In exchange for repeal of the San Francisco Segregation Order
Spanish American War • 1898 – war between U.S. and Spain • Helped Cuba to win independence from Spain • Other causes include yellow journalism and the De Lome Letter – • Direct Cause – U.S. blamed Spain for the explosion that sand the U.S.S. Maine in the harbor of Havana, Cuba • War starts in Philippines – colony of Spain and is also fought in the Caribbean Islands
Spanish American War • Results – Spain freed Cuba and gave Islands of Guam and Puerto Rico to the U.S. • Sold Philippines to U.S. for $20 million • Treaty began great debate of “Imperialism” in the U.S.
U.S. in Latin America • Roosevelt Corollary was an extension of the Monroe Doctrine • The U.S. claim the right to protect its economic economic interest by means of military intervention in the affair of Western Hemisphere nations (North and South America)
Panama Canal • Panama Canal – built on the isthmus of Panama to provide a short cut between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans – 1914 • Took over project for the French
SSUSh15 The Student will analyze the origins and impact of U.S. involvement in World War I • World War I – U.S. remained neutral at beginning of WWI in 1914 • German provocation led to U.S. involvement in the war • Supported Allied Forces by selling arms and war supplies to Britain and France • U.S. enters war in 1917 as a result of …. - Zimmerman Note – note from Germany to Mexico proposing an alliance • Sinking of unarmed American merchant ships
War at Home - Impact • The Great Migration – large scale movement of hundreds of thousands of African Americans from the rural South to factories in the North • Job opportunities and to escape the Jim Crow laws of the South
War at Home - Impact • Espionage and Sedition Act – a person could be fined up to $10 thousand and sentenced up to 20 years in jail for interfering with the war effort or saying any thing disloyal. • Targeted socialist and labor leader – such as Eugene B. Debs - a known socialists and labor leader of the IWW – given ten year prison sentence for speaking against the draft
Wilson’s Fourteen Points • Wilson’s ideas that he wanted included in the WWI peace treaty – included freedom of the seas and League of Nations – first peace keeping organization • U.S. never joined the League of Nations because Senate failed to approve treaty
Amendments • 18th Amendment – due to the women’s temperance movement – banned the sale, manufacture, and distribution of alcoholic beverages - known as Prohibition • 19th Amendment – Women’s suffrage - gave women the right to vote in 1920 - result of women’s efforts during WWI
SSUSH16 The student will identify key developments in the aftermath of WWI • Red Scare and the rise of communism and socialism • The panic began in the U.S. in 1919 after the communist take over of Russia • Communist Party was formed in the U.S. • Bomb scare to public officials and business leaders • Public became fearful of communist take over • Palmer (U.S. Attorney General) took action to combat RED SCARE
Immigrant restriction • As a result of the Red Scare – the U.S. began a quota system • It established the maximum number of people who could enter the U.S. from Europe • Greatly limited immigrants from southern and eastern Europe • 1927 law reduced the total number to 150,000 in one year
Industrial expansion • Henry Ford is most noted for the introduction of assembly line which created the emergence of mass production • Produced identical items in large quantities • Made car affordable • Model T was the most popular automobile
Harlem Renaissance • 1920’s literary and artistic movement celebrating African American culture in Harlem, New York • Langston Hughes – was the movement’s best known poet • Louis Armstrong – famous jazz artist during this time – known as one of the most important and influential musicians in the history of jazz (played trumpet)
Modern forms of Culture • Tin Pan Alley (often shortened to TPA) is the name given to the collection of New York City-centered music publishers and songwriters who dominated the popular music of the United States in the late 19th century and early 20th century. • Irvin Berlin – Composer • Mass Media – Radio and movies changed the speed with which people gained information
SSUSH17 The student will analyze the causes and consequences of the Great Depression • Causes – - Tariffs (to protect American goods) and war debts (WWI) - Over production of farm goods - Availability of easy credit - unequal distribution of income - Stock market speculation and crash
Effects of the Great Depression • People out of work • Rise of shanty towns (Hoovervilles) • World economy suffers • Bank failures • Schools close • Hoover begin active governmental involvement too little – too late
Dust Bowl • Drought – 1930’s wreaked havoc on the Great Plains • Farmers had exhausted the land due to over production of crops • Grasslands became unsuitable for farming • Windstorms picked up millions of tons of dust and carried to East coast cities • Dust Bowl consisted of Kansas, Oklahoma, Colorado, Texas and New Mexico • People were plagued by dust storms and evictions – most migrated to California and Pacific coast states.