Module 14 Motivation
Module 14 • How do human needs and job designs influence motivation to work? • How do thought processes and decisions affect motivation to work? • What role does reinforcement play in motivation?
14.1Human Needs and Job Design • Maslow described a hierarchy of needs topped by self-actualization • Alderfer’s ERG theory deals with existence, relatedness and growth needs • McClelland identified acquired needs for achievement, power and affiliation • Herzberg’s two-factor theory focuses on higher-order need satisfaction • The core characteristics model integrates motivation and job design
HUMAN NEEDSMaslow’s Hierarchy • Motivation – level, direction and persistence of effort expended at work • Maslow’s hierarchy • Needs • Unfulfilled desires that stimulate people to act • Lower order needs • Physiological, safety and social needs • Higher order needs • Esteem and self-actualization
HUMANNEEDSAlderfer’s ERG Theory • Alderfer’s ERG Theory
HUMANNEEDSMcClelland’s Acquired Needs • Three acquired needs that vary in strength among people
HUMAN NEEDSMcClelland’s Acquired Needs • Two forms of need for power • Need for personal power • Need for social power
JOB DESIGNCore Characteristics Model • Job design • Allocation of specific tasks to individuals and groups • Job enrichment • Adds opportunities for satisfying higher-order needs to a job by adding opportunities for planning and controlling work
14.2Thought Processes and Decisions • Equity theory explains how social comparisons can motivate individual behavior • Expectancy theory considers motivation = expectancy x instrumentality x valence • Goal-setting theory shows that well-chosen and well-set goals can be motivating
THOUGHT PROCESSES Equity Theory • Equity theory explains how social comparisons can motivate individual behavior • Perceived negative inequity • Attempt to restore equity by working less or quitting • Perceived positive inequity • Attempt to restore equity by extra effort
THOUGHT PROCESSES Expectancy Theory • Expectancy theory considers motivation = expectancy x instrumentality x valence
THOUGHT PROCESSES Goal Setting Theory • Goal-setting theory shows that well-chosen and well-set goals can be motivating
14.3Reinforcement • Operant conditioning influences behavior by controlling its consequences • Positive reinforcement connects desirable behavior with pleasant consequences • Punishment connects undesirable behavior with unpleasant consequences
REINFORCEMENTLaw of Effect • The law of effect states that behavior followed by a pleasant consequence is likely to be repeated; behavior followed by an unpleasant consequence is unlikely to be repeated.
REINFORCEMENTOperant Conditioning • Operant Conditioning – B. F. Skinner • Influences behavior by controlling its consequences. • Positive reinforcement strengthens a behavior by making a desirable consequence contingent on its occurrence. • Negative reinforcement strengthens a behavior by making the avoidance of an undesirable consequence contingent on its occurrence.
REINFORCEMENTOperant Conditioning • Punishment discourages by making an unpleasant consequence contingent on its occurrence. • Extinction discourages a behavior by making the removal of a desirable consequence contingent on its occurrence.
REINFORCEMENTPositive Reinforcement • Positive reinforcement connects desirable behavior with pleasant consequences • Law of contingent reinforcement • Reward only when desirable behavior is demonstrated • Law of immediate reinforcement • Reward immediately after the desirable behavior is demonstrated
REINFORCEMENTPositive Reinforcement • Shaping • Creating a new behavior by positive reinforcement of similar behaviors • Continuous reinforcement • Reward every time behavior is exhibited • Intermittent reinforcement • Reward behavior periodically
REINFORCEMENTPunishment • Punishment • Connects undesirable behavior with unpleasant consequences • Deny a reward • No raise/pay reduction • Reprimand
Module 14 Case • Pixar Animation Studios – Home of the Creative Geniuses