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Plagiarism and How to avoid it

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  1. Plagiarism and How to avoid it Modified APA style of referencing… Adapted from Ms. M. Mirka, Centennial (2004) Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, 2011, Plagiarism Ivan Rismi Polontalo, S.Pd., M.Ed.Stud

  2. Do you know… • What is Plagiarism? • What is an in-text Citation? • What is a reference list? • What does paraphrasing mean? Ivan Rismi Polontalo, S.Pd., M.Ed.Stud

  3. Getting Started… • What is Plagiarism? Plagiarism means using another’s work without giving them credit and saying that it is your own Mirka, 2004, The Plagiarism Trap. • To “Plagiarize” means • to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own • to use (another's production) without crediting the source • to commit literary theft • to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, 2011, Plagiarism Ivan Rismi Polontalo, S.Pd., M.Ed.Stud

  4. Examples of Plagiarism… Ivan Rismi Polontalo, S.Pd., M.Ed.Stud

  5. Examples of Plagiarism… (continued) Ivan Rismi Polontalo, S.Pd., M.Ed.Stud

  6. Examples of Plagiarism… (continued) Ivan Rismi Polontalo, S.Pd., M.Ed.Stud

  7. Examples of Plagiarism… (continued) Ivan Rismi Polontalo, S.Pd., M.Ed.Stud

  8. Examples of Plagiarism… (continued) Ivan Rismi Polontalo, S.Pd., M.Ed.Stud

  9. More Examples of Plagiarism… • Quoting a source without using quotation marks-even if you do cite it • Citing sources you didn’t use • Getting a research paper, story, poem, or article off the Internet • Turning in the same paper for more than one class without the permission of both teachers (this is called self-plagiarism) • Can you think of more? Ivan Rismi Polontalo, S.Pd., M.Ed.Stud

  10. How to Avoid Plagiarism… • Use your own words and ideas • Alwaysgive credit to the source where you have received your information • If you use someone’s exact words - put them in quotes and give credit using in-text citations. Include the source in your references Ivan Rismi Polontalo, S.Pd., M.Ed.Stud

  11. How to Avoid Plagiarism… • If you have paraphrased someone’s work, (summarizing a passage or rearranging the order of a sentence and changing some of the words)-always give credit • Take very good notes--write down the source as you are taking notes. Do not wait until later to try and retrieve the original source • Avoid using someone else’s work with minor “cosmetic” changes Ivan Rismi Polontalo, S.Pd., M.Ed.Stud

  12. Annotated Bibliography Ivan Rismi Polontalo, S.Pd., M.Ed.Stud

  13. What is a Bibliography?What is an Annotation? A Bibliography is a list of citations put together on a topic of interest. An Annotation is a commentary a reader makes after critically reading an information source. It can include a summary of the reading, the reader’s response to the reading, and/or questions/comments addressing the article’s clarity, purpose, or effectiveness.

  14. What is an Annotated Bibliography? An Annotated Bibliography is a list of bibliographic citations that includes a descriptive and evaluative paragraph of each citation. Its overall purpose is to support your study of a particular subject by providing a collection of succinct article summaries that will negate the need for rereading of an article.

  15. Where do I start? • Begin by critically reading the article. View the reading as an interactive process in which your interpretation of author’s words is influenced by your own knowledge and experiences. • Critical readers attempt to dialogue with the text by asking tough questions on the article’s purpose, audience, language and content.

  16. Questions to ask about an article • Who is the author? His/her credentials?, biases? • Where is the article published? What type of journal is it? What is the audience? • What do I know about the topic? Am I open to new ideas? • Why was the article written? What is its purpose? • What is the author’s thesis? The major supporting points or assertions?

  17. Questions to ask about an article (cont) • Did the author support his/her thesis/assertions? • Did the article achieve its purpose? • Was the article organized? • Were the supporting sources credible? • Did the article change my viewpoint on the topic? • Was the article convincing? What new information or ideas do I accept or reject?

  18. Getting Started… • What is a Citation? • References and citations in text are the formal methods of acknowledging the use of a creator’s work. • An In-Text Citation? • Direct citations and quotations are acknowledged in the body of a research assignment. (Right in the sentence or paragraph) Ivan Rismi Polontalo, S.Pd., M.Ed.Stud

  19. Ivan Rismi Polontalo, S.Pd., M.Ed.Stud

  20. Ivan Rismi Polontalo, S.Pd., M.Ed.Stud

  21. How does plagiarism affect you?? WHAT happens if you plagiarize? • In junior/senior high school? • At university? • In society? Ivan Rismi Polontalo, S.Pd., M.Ed.Stud

  22. Ivan Rismi Polontalo, S.Pd., M.Ed.Stud

  23. Ivan Rismi Polontalo, S.Pd., M.Ed.Stud

  24. Ivan Rismi Polontalo, S.Pd., M.Ed.Stud

  25. Ivan Rismi Polontalo, S.Pd., M.Ed.Stud

  26. Today’s Goals • Learn what APA style is and why it is important • Learn about the standard APA title page format • Learn basic documentation for books, journals, and websites • Learn the differences between methods of source integration: summarizing, paraphrasing, and quoting • Learn how to use signal phrases and in-text citation to avoid plagiarism

  27. What is APA Style, and Why Use It? • American Psychological Association • Style established in 1928 by Social Science professionals • Style provides guidelines for publication in Social Science Journals (such as Psychology, Sociology, Education, and Nursing) • Style lends consistency and makes texts more readable by those who assess or publish them American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association.

  28. An APA Title Page

  29. Documentation • Refers to the References list at the end of the paper • The List • is labeled References (centered, no font changes) • starts at the top of a new page • continues page numbering from the last page of text • is alphabetical • is double spaced • Uses a hanging indent (1/2 inch – can be formatted from the Paragraph dialog box in MS Word) Perrin, R. (2007). Pocket guide to APA style (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

  30. Documenting Authors • One Author: Koch Jr., R. T. (2004). • Two Authors: Stewart, T., & Biffle, G. (1999). • Three to Six Authors Wells, H. G., Lovecraft, H. P., Potter, H. J., Rowling, J. K., & Kirk, J. T. (2005). • More than Six Authors Smith, M., Flanagan, F., Judd, A., Burstyn, E., Bullock, S., Knight, S., et al. (2002). • Same author? List by Year. Same year? Alphabetize by source title and add a letter to the year (1984a).

  31. Documenting Books Model: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of book. City: Publisher. Sample: Perrin, R. (2007). Pocket guide to APA style (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Internationally recognized cities do not need two letter state abbreviations. Publishers do not need Co. Ltd., etc.

  32. Documenting Edited Collections Model: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Eds.). (Date of publication). Title of book. City: Publisher. Model for an essay in an edited collection: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. In A.A. Author (Ed.), Title of book (pp. ##-##). City: Publisher. Sample: McCabe, S. (2005). Psychopharmacology and other biologic treatments. In M. A. Boyd (Ed.), Psychiatric nursing: Contemporary practice (pp.124-138). Philadelphia: Lippincott-Williams and Wilkins. Perrin, R. (2007). Pocket guide to APA style (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

  33. Documenting Journals Model: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number if available), page numbers. Sample: Koch Jr., R. T. (2006). Building connections through reflective writing. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 10(3), 208-213. APA formatting and style guide – The OWL at Purdue. (2007). Purdue University Online Writing Lab. Retrieved October 01, 2007, from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

  34. Documenting Online Journals Model: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number. Retrieved month date, year, from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/ Sample: Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8. Retrieved February 20, 2001, from http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocont.html Print and Online: Whitmeyer, J.M. (2000). Power through appointment [Electronic version]. Social Science Research, 29, 535-555. APA formatting and style guide – The OWL at Purdue. (2007). Purdue University Online Writing Lab. Retrieved October 01, 2007, from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

  35. Documenting Websites Model for an authored document that is a whole site: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article/document. Retrieved month date, year, from http://Web address Model for an authored page/article from a site: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article/document. Title of Site. Retrieved month date, year, from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/ Sample (no author, article found on resource website): Nebraska school nurse honored during 100th Anniversary Celebration. (2007). Answers4Families. Retrieved September 26, 2007, from http://nncf.unl.edu/ nurses/info/anniversary.html No Author? List page title or article title first. No page title? List site title. APA formatting and style guide – The OWL at Purdue. (2007). Purdue University Online Writing Lab. Retrieved October 01, 2007, from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

  36. Why Source Integration? • Quotations, paraphrases, and summaries • provide support for claims or add credibility to your writing • refer to work that leads up to the work you are now doing • give examples of several points of view on a subject • call attention to a position that you wish to agree or disagree with • highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or passage by quoting the original • distance yourself from the original by quoting it in order to cue readers that the words are not your own • expand the breadth or depth of your writing Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing. (2004). Purdue University Online Writing Lab. Retrieved September 28, 2007, from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_quotprsum.html

  37. Choosing Text to Integrate Read the entire text, noting the key points and main ideas. Summarize in your own words what the single main idea of the essay is. Paraphrase important supporting points that come up in the essay. Consider any words, phrases, or brief passages that you believe should be quoted directly. Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing. (2004). Purdue University Online Writing Lab. Retrieved September 28, 2007, from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_quotprsum.html

  38. Summarizing • When you summarize, you put the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s). • Summarized ideas must be attributed to the original source. • Summaries are significantly shorter than the original. • Summaries take a broad overview of source material. Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing. (2004). Purdue University Online Writing Lab. Retrieved September 28, 2007, from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_quotprsum.html

  39. Paraphrasing • Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. • Attribute paraphrases to their original sources. • Paraphrases are usually shorter than, but may be the same length as the original passage. • Paraphrases take a more focused segment of the source and condense it slightly. Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing. (2004). Purdue University Online Writing Lab. Retrieved September 28, 2007, from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_quotprsum.html

  40. Quoting • Quotations must be identical to the original. • Quotations use a narrow segment of the source. • They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author. • Use quotes when the actual words are so integral to the discussion that they cannot be replaced. • Use quotes when the author’s words are so precisely and accurately stated that they cannot be paraphrased. Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing. (2004). Purdue University Online Writing Lab. Retrieved September 28, 2007, from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_quotprsum.html

  41. Quotation Examples… • less than 40 words: • He confirms our suspicions. “Because N-Gen children are born with technology, they assimilate it. Adultsmust accommodate – a different and much more difficult learning process”_(Tapscott, 1998, p. 40). (Punctuation is only after in-text citation.) Ivan Rismi Polontalo, S.Pd., M.Ed.Stud

  42. Quotation Examples… 2. more than forty words (Block Quotation): • The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(2010) explains how to avoidplagiarism: • Quotation marks should be used to indicate the exact words of another. Each time you paraphrase another author (i.e., summarize a passage or rearrange the order of a sentence and change some of the words), you need to credit the source of the text..(p.15)(Punctuation at end of quote, before the citation.) Ivan Rismi Polontalo, S.Pd., M.Ed.Stud

  43. Signal Phrases and In-Text Citation • Signal phrases introduce someone else’s work – they signal that the words and ideas that are about to be offered belong to someone other than the author of the paper. • In-text citations are the parenthetical pieces of information that appear usually at the end of a quote, paraphrase, or summary (though they sometimes appear before). • A simple rule: Author or Title, Year, and Page: what isn’t signaled up front must be cited at the end.

  44. Signal Phrases and In-Text Citation (continued) • Limited signal, everything in citation . . . end of paraphrased sentence, in which you convey the author's ideas in your own words (Krepp, 1985, p. 103). " . . . end of quoted sentence" (Krepp, 1985, p. 103). • Author and year in signal, page in citation In 1985, Krepp reported that . . . (p. 103). Krepp (1985) tells us that . . . (p. 103). According to Krepp (1985), ". . ." (p. 103). Documenting sources at SNHU: APA style. (n.d.). Southern New Hampshire University. Retrieved September 17, 2007 from http://acadweb.snhu.edu/documenting_sources/apa.htm#Use%20a%20citation%20when%20you%20paraphrase

  45. Signal Phrases and In-Text Citation (continued) Multiple Authors signaled (Alphabetical) Studies (Jones, 1966; Krepp, 1985; Smith, 1973) have shown that . . . No Author ("Stocks Lose Again," 1991, p. B16). According to the news article “Stocks Lose Again” (1991) … end paraphrase or “quote” (p. B16). No Page Number Provide other information in signal phrase Documenting sources at SNHU: APA style. (n.d.). Southern New Hampshire University. Retrieved September 17, 2007 from http://acadweb.snhu.edu/documenting_sources/apa.htm#Use%20a%20citation%20when%20you%20paraphrase

  46. Citation Example 1 He states, “anything takes on a new meaning when we think of it as a monument”(Boorstin, 1987, p. 215) and adds that monuments can be both man-made and natural. Note punctuation What makes this sentence elegant or unique? Ivan Rismi Polontalo, S.Pd., M.Ed.Stud

  47. Citation Example 2 • Johnston and Cutchins(1988) state that “life is hard for animal babies of all kinds, but for young reptiles, surviving their first year is especially difficult” (p. 36). • To put two authors in the brackets, you must use the ampersand “&” symbol. (Johnston & Cutchins, 1988, p. 36) • For more than 3 authors, you may use the Latin phrase “et al” which means “and the rest” (Abrams, et al, 2010, p. 345) Ivan Rismi Polontalo, S.Pd., M.Ed.Stud

  48. Personal Communications Personal communications include e-mail letters, telephone conversations, interviews, etc. They arementioned in the body of a paper only, as they are not locatable. They are cited (see below), but NEVER included in your reference list, because a reader cannot refer to or locate them later. Author Martine Bates (personal communication, January 25, 2011) is excited about Marwen’s latestadventures and hopes her readers are too. Ivan Rismi Polontalo, S.Pd., M.Ed.Stud

  49. References American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association. APA formatting and style guide – The OWL at Purdue. (2007). Purdue University Online Writing Lab. Retrieved October 01, 2007, from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ Documenting sources at SNHU: APA style. (n.d.). Southern New Hampshire University. Retrieved September 17, 2007 from http://acadweb.snhu.edu/documenting_sources/apa.htm#Use%20a%20citation%20when%20you%20paraphrase Homepage: APA style. (2007). American Psychological Association. Retrieved October 1, 2007 from http://apastyle.apa.org Perrin, R. (2007). Pocket guide to APA style (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing. (2004). Purdue University Online Writing Lab. Retrieved September 28, 2007, from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_quotprsum.html

  50. Thank You!You are welcome to ask questions regarding the issue of plagiarism if you need assistance. The End. Ivan Rismi Polontalo, S.Pd., M.Ed.Stud