句 法 學 國立東華大學民族語言與傳播學系 九十二學年度第二學期
一、何謂句法學─句法分析的工具介紹 • 語言學的主要目的 → 描述語言 Describing a language Phonology Morphology Syntax → Semantics Pragmatics
句法學 Syntax， 或稱句子結構 Sentence Structure的研究 研究前提：1. well-formed sentences 2. written languages 3. sentences in isolation
─句法分析的工具介紹─ • A. 組成成分CONSTITUENTS： A sentence consists of words. / Words are constituents of a sentence. S → word + word + word +…. (sentence) (consists of)
《例子》 1. Mary likes John. 2. I don’t know what Jane will do when she comes home. S1 → word + word + word (sentence) (consists of) S2 → word + word + word + word +…. (sentence) (consists of)
《例子》 從以下字彙中，按照 S→word + word +… 造句： girl, that, the, likes, apple, buys, this, eats *Girl apple likes this that. 小心得 →Certain sorts of words can only appear in certain positions or in certain combinations.
B. 範疇Word Categories： • 《例子》 女孩喜歡小貓。 *小貓女孩喜歡。 *喜歡女孩小貓。 *女孩小貓喜歡。 小貓喜歡女孩。
→ 「女孩」和「小貓」可交換， 所以屬於同一類型的字， 即同一範疇 Word Category。
範疇 Word Category 包含： • 名詞 Nouns • 動詞 Verbs • 形容詞 Adjectives • 副詞 Adverbs • 指示詞 Determiners …….
C. 樹狀圖Tree Diagrams： • 女孩喜歡小貓。 Noun + Verb + Noun • 我吃麵包。 • 母親打小孩。 → 共享同一結構 Structure 或形式 Form
S / | \ Noun Verb Noun | | | 女孩 喜歡 小貓 我 吃 麵包 母親 打 小孩 • Word categories are constituents of a sentence.
D. 詞組與詞組結構Phrase Structure： • 《例子》 That girl was chased by a dog. ─ 結合較緊密。 ─ 用代名詞替用時，必須同時取代。 ex: *That she was chased by a it. She was chased by it.
That girl was chased by a dog. Det. Noun Verb Det. Noun S →((Det.+ Noun) + Verb + (Det.+ Noun))
S / | \ PhraseA Verb PhraseB / \ | / \ Det. Noun Verb Det. Noun | | | | | That girl was chased by a dog.
練習： • 1. The detective found a clue. • 2. Carol likes Henry. • 3. The hen ate the corn.
E. 形式與功能Form and Function： 1. 主詞 Subject 疑問 → 為何所有的句子都以名詞詞組Noun Phrase 為起頭? • *Chased that girl a dog. • *Chased a dog that girl. • That girl chased a dog. • A dog chased that girl.
That girl chased a dog. • A dog chased that girl. 焦點 Focus 的轉移 → 焦點即為主詞 (簡稱S) 的所在。 另，S 通常是由名詞詞組Noun Phrase所組成.
2. 述詞 Predicate 「焦點」以外的部分，稱之為述詞 (簡稱 P )。 • That girl chased a dog. SUBJECT=that girl; PREDICATE=chased a dog. 另，P 通常由動詞詞組 Verb Phrase 所組成。
《例子》 That girl likes that dog. This boy does too. Carol cried. Sally cried (too).
This girl likes that dog. S / \ NP VP / \ / \ Det Noun Verb NP | | | / \ | | | Det Noun This girl likes that dog (SUBJECT=this girl; PREDICATE=likes that dog)
練習’’： • 1. The detective found a clue. • 2. Carol likes Henry. • 3. The hen ate the corn.
二、句法範疇 • Phrasal categories: NP, VP. • Word categories: NOUN, Det, VERB. • ADVERBS • ADVERB Phrases • PREPOSITIONS /PREPOSITIONAL Phrases • ADJECTIVES • ADJECTIVE Phrases
A. ADVERBS and ADVERB Phrases • 用法: Adverbs often add information in relation to circumstances of manner, time, or place. • How? Ken snores loudly. • When? I had the lecture this morning. • Where? We are at that bookshop.
1. Ken snores loudly. • belonged to Circumstance Adverbs • -ly • to Modify the verb (to define the sense of the verb by telling something of the way it is done)
2. Ken snores very loudly. • AdvP - formed by one/more constituents • very – Degree Adverb (deg); loudly– Circumstance Adverb • Degree Adverb is to Modify the sense of an Adv. * Ken snores very.
小結： AdvP → (deg) + Adv S / \ NP VP | / \ N V AdvP | | / \ Ken snores deg Adv | | very loudly (Predicate= V+AdvP)
《練習》 • 1. Unfortunately the cat killed the mouse. • 2. The cat unfortunately killed the mouse. • 3. The cat killed the mouse unfortunately.
Unfortunately Ken snores. Ken unfortunately snores. Ken snores unfortunately. ?Loudly Ken snores. ?Ken loudly snores. Ken snores loudly. → 和 “Ken snores loudly.”做比較:
小結： AdvP can modify the whole sentence. → The AdvP node is dominated by the S node, not by VP node.
Form and Function: • Unfortunately the cat killed the mouse. A S P dO • The cat unfortunately killed the mouse. S A P dO • The cat killed the mouse unfortunately. S P dO A (dO=direct Object; A=Adverbial)
S / \ NP VP | / \ N V AdvP | | | Ken snores Adv S P | loudly A Unfortunately, Ken snores. The baby cried extremely loudly. Frankly, she hates babies. 《範例》 《練習》
B. PREPOSITIONS and PREPOSITIONAL Phrases • 用法: belonged to a class of words which express relations of place, direction, time or possession. • 1. Sally looked up. P • 2. Sally looked up the chimney. P + NP (PP)
1. S / \ NP VP | / \ N V PP | | | Sally looked P | up 2. S / \ NP VP | / \ N V PP | | / \ Sally looked P NP | / \ up DET N | | the chimney
小結 → PP is dominated by the VP node. PP → P (+ NP)
Form and Function: • Sally looked up. S P A • Sally looked up the chimney. S P A • Sally reads in the mornings. S P A
S / \ NP VP | / \ N V PP | | / \ Sally reads P NP | / \ in Det N | | the morning (S=Sally;P=reads; A=in the mornings) The cow jumped over the moon. The cat sat on the mat. The baby sleeps quite sweetly. 《範例》 《練習》
C. ADJECTIVES and ADJECTIVE Phrases • 用法: “describing words”; to define attributes or characteristics. • The fat dog chased the thin girl. The Adjectives are to Modify the nouns. (to define the sense of the noun)
AP / \ AdvP A | | Adv fat | disgustingly AP / \ AdvP A | | Adv thin | amazingly The disgustingly fat dog chased the amazingly thin girl.
The quite disgustingly fat dog chased the thin girl. AP / \ AdvP A / \ | deg Adv fat | | quite disgustingly
小結→ AP → (AdvP) + A → A/AP can Modify nouns (to form part of the noun phrase); → not necessary to appear with nouns always…
The disgustingly fat dog chased the girl. • The dog is quite disgustingly fat.
Summary of Rules Rules to remember: Adjective Phrase (AP) AP → (AdvP) + A e.g. the (quite disgustingly) fat dog the dog is (quite disgustingly) fat
Summary of Rules Rules to remember: Adverb Phrase (AdvP) AdvP → (deg) + Adv Function: A e.g. Ken snores (very) loudly.
Summary of Rules Rules to remember: Prepositional Phrase (PP) PP → P (+ NP) Function: A e.g. Sally looked up. Sally looked up the chimney.
三、動詞詞組 The Verb Phrase • This girl likes that dog. ： VP → V + NP 但是，不是所有的動詞都有以上的組成形式，由 Class of verb 來決定:
A. Transitive verbs • B. Intransitive verbs • C. Ditransitive verbs • D. Intensive verbs • E. Complex-transitive verbs • F. Prepositional verbs
A. Transitive verbs • This girl likesthat dog. • Kate hugged the baby. → • * This girl likes. • * Kate hugged.
S / \ NP VP | / \ N V [trans] NP | | / \ Kate hugged Det N SP | | the baby dO
《練習》 • 1. The dog found a bone. • 2. She broke the rules. • 3. Jenny hit him.
Ken snores. The baby cried. She moved. S / \ NP VP | | N V [intrans] | | Ken snores S P B. Intransitive verbs