LEARNING OBJECTIVES • Describe the basic steps in planning a prevention program • Describe process in performing a needs assessment • Identify steps in performing a needs assessment interview • Devise a prevention plan • Prepare an implementation plan • List steps for evaluating and revising plan
PLANNING PROCESS • Performing a needs assessment • Charting a plan • Goals • Objectives • Resources • Implementation • Evaluation • Program revision
PREREQUISITE TO SERVING AS A CHANGE AGENT • Understanding of the community • Sensitivity to the community
OTHER CHANGE AGENTS • Resource individuals from the community who are: • Involved in community affairs • Valuable contributors in preventing illegal drug use
WHAT IS A COMMUNITY? • Squadron • A place where you share common public services • A residential area (housing)
STEPS IN PERFORMING A NEEDS ASSESSMENT • Gather information • Make rational decisions • Write reports • Brief reports
DATA • Reports • Demographics • Social • Economic • Leadership • Health and well-being • Values • Communications
DATA • Reports • DOD Survey of Health Related Behaviors • Statistics from your local installation • Rates of substance abuse in the local civilian community (hospitals, schools, mental health agencies) • Law enforcement • Urinalysis • Others?
DATA • Demographics • Who lives in the military community? • What are the ages, back grounds, grade and gender? • Are there many single-parent families? Single people?
DATA • Social • Where do people get to know each other and interact socially? • What are the accepted social activities in your community? • How do newcomers meet people? • Which groups are active?
DATA • Economic • Where do people spend their money? • What off-duty opportunities are there for people?
DATA • Leadership • Who are the formal and informal leaders? • Which are the influential groups? • Who are the people who know what’s going on in the community? • Who are the people who are popular, or listened to by others?
DATA • Health and well-being • What are the major health resources? • Are there plenty of things to do for all age groups and interests? • Are people active? • What are the health concerns of the community?
DATA • Values • Are there any “community” beliefs that seem to affect decision-making? • How unified or diverse are people’s values? • What is the “community spirit” and how is it expressed?
DATA • Communications • How is information spread? • What are the mass media outlets? • What are the common informal means of spreading information? • How accurate is communication?
NEEDS ASSESSMENT • Once you know the community you are dealing with, you need to develop a plan that focuses on the concerns and required changes
NEEDS ASSESSMENT • These questions should help you with your needs assessment • What illegal drugs are being used? • What other programs exist? • What are the media vehicles? • What resources exist within the community?
APPROACHES • Community forums and hearings • Case studies • Service provider surveys • Target population surveys • Social indicators • Interviews • Observation
TOOLS FOR COLLECTING DATA • Questionnaire • Sample • Existing surveys • Interview with key people
RESEARCH OTHER PROGRAMS • Avoid duplicating the work of others • Discover opportunities for working with other groups (IDS) • Ensure that your efforts complement what is already done
PLACES TO CONTACT • Local and state agencies • Civic and youth groups • On base activities • Federal Agencies
NEEDS ASSESSMENT • Helps you identify who is to receive the services • What kind of services are needed • What expertise you will need to provide the services
NEEDS ASSESSMENT • Helps you determine what focus your prevention program should take • Informs you what key groups in your community perceive their needsto be
NEEDS ASSESSMENT • The results of a needs assessment will form the basis for your program goals and objectives
REVIEW!! • Assessing for: • Prevention needs of your community • Who can best provide for those needs
LONG TERM GOALS: • Decrease drug related incidents • Lower substance abuse indicators (DUIs, Treatment admissions) • Be an essential part of your unit’s mission readiness program • What kills more of our military personnel? Is it beer or bullets?
METHODOLOGIES: • There are a variety of effective ways to conduct a needs assessment • You need to weigh the pros and cons of each
METHODOLOGIES: • Three main methods • Observation • Social indicators • Interviews
1 OBSERVATION: • This approach allows you to come to your own conclusion as to what may be needed by direct observation
USE WHEN: • First hand experience is required • Units may not be able to relate directly to needed intervention (need may have become too much of a norm)
USE WHEN: • Sufficient time is available to make reliable observation
MAJOR STEPS IN OBSERVATION: • Identify site • Gain access to observe • Take overt or covert role of observer
MAJOR STEPS: • Establish trust and rapport • Record observation • Analyze and compare observation with other documentation
MAJOR STEPS: • Write report summarizing observation and conclusions • I don’t have time to write the report! Lets discuss this
ADVANTAGES: • Provides information on problems or service needs which may not be widely recognized • Assessment based on professional judgment • Simple and inexpensive • Builds CREDIBILITY
ADVANTAGES: • Validates information from other sources
DISADVANTAGES: • Problems identified may be biased by the observer • Data may reflect needs of those being observed and not indicative of the community as a whole
DISADVANTAGES: • Needs identified may reflect the interest of the observer
2 SOCIAL INDICATORS: • This approach is based on descriptive data drawn from records and reports (Security Forces, SJA, urinalysis, World Wide survey, etc)
USE WHEN: • Reliable data pool is already available • Foundation information is needed to build on • Verifying identified needs from other sources • Man-hours are limited
MAJOR STEPS: • Determine information to be gathered • Determine existing data on which information could be interpreted • Collect data at regular intervals
MAJOR STEPS: • Examine for trends at regular intervals • Compile results and summarize
ADVANTAGES: • Vast existing data pool • Low cost • Design flexibility • Foundation on which to verify other needs assessment surveys
DISADVANTAGES: • National data may not be indicative of local trends • Data is only as good as the provider • Bias or incorrect inferences can be introduced
3 INTERVIEWS: • This approach allows you to direct the assessment at key personnel which may provide insight into the scope of the situation or problem
USE WHEN: • It is necessary to make direct contact • Necessary to build and maintain rapport • Direct feedback is needed
USE WHEN: • Supplemental information is needed • Facilitating understanding • Get command support
INTERVIEW TECHNIQUES • Express a knowledge of the interviewee and the organization • Use open-ended problem solving questions • Discuss the purpose of the interview • Encourage the interviewee to talk with body language • Take notes • Offer to answer any further questions • Review, summarize and express appreciation