Benefits of Family Planning infants and children women communities families
Benefits of Family PlanningObjectives At the end of this session, participants will be able to • Define contraception and family planning (FP) • Describe the risks of pregnancy and delivery among women with various characteristics and conditions • Describe how FP improves the lives of women, children, families, and communities • List the benefits of FP for all women, for children, for families and communities. • Discuss FP in the context of human rights • Explain how FP contributes to the Millennium Development Goals
Defining Contraception and Family Planning What is the definition of contraception? Contraception is the intentional prevention of pregnancy by artificial or natural means. What is the definition of family planning? Family planning allows individuals and couples to anticipate and attain their desired number of children and the spacing and timing of their births. It is achieved through use of contraceptive methods and the treatment of involuntary infertility. – World Health Organization, Department of Reproductive Health and Research
Family Planning Saves Lives • Over 287,000 women per year die in pregnancy or childbirth • 47,000 women per year die from complications of unsafe abortion • Complications of pregnancy and childbirth are the leading cause of death in young women 94,000 maternal deaths could be prevented if all women who said they want to avoid pregnancy were able to stop childbearing. Sources: WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA and The World Bank, 2010; WHO 2009; Guttmacher Institute, 2010.
Women with an Increased Risk of Having Problems During Pregnancy and Delivery Women who: Are under the age of 18, or over age 35 Become pregnant less than 2 years after a previous live birth Become pregnant less than six months post-abortion or post-miscarriage Have too many children (high parity) Have certain existing health problems Do not have access to skilled health care Problems are more likely in those with multiple risk factors.
Pregnancy Is Greater Risk for Adolescents Over 70,000 maternal deaths occur among adolescents aged 15–19 each year Girls below the age of 15 are five times more likely to die in childbirth than women in their twenties Adolescents are more likely to: Have pregnancy related complications Deliver prematurely Have babies that die before their first birthday About 2.5 million young women aged 15-19 have an unsafe abortion in the developing world each year Sources: Advocates for Youth, 2007; UNICEF, 2008; Guttmacher, 2009.
Pregnancy Is Greater Risk for Women with Pregnancies Spaced Too Closely Women who become pregnant less than 2 years after a previous live birth are more likely to: Become sick or die from pregnancy and delivery complications Have babies at risk of prematurity, low birth weight, small size for gestational age, fetal and neonatal death Women who become pregnant less than 6 months postabortion or miscarriage may be at increased risk of complications for mother and child Source: WHO, 2006; Conde-Agudelo, 2006; Rutstein , 2005; Conde-Agudelo, 2005.
Pregnancy Is Greater Risk for Women Over the Age of 35 Women over age 35 are: At least twice as likely to die in pregnancy or childbirth than women aged 20–24 More likely to have problems during pregnancy such as miscarriage, hypertension, or diabetes More likely to give birth to small babies, babies with disabilities, or stillborn babies Source: Stover, 2010; WHO, 1995.
Pregnancy Is Greater Risk for Women of High Parity Women with more than four children who have an additional pregnancy are more likely to: Die during pregnancy or childbirth Have anemia, experience blood loss (post partum hemorrhage), and need transfusions Develop complications such as uterine relaxation (during and after delivery) and uterine rupture Source: WHO, 1995.
Pregnancy Is Greater Risk for Women with Certain Existing Health Problems Health risks associated with pregnancy make effective contraception especially important for women with these conditions: Reproductive tract cancers and some infections Serious cardiovascular problems Diabetes with vascular complications Sickle cell anemia Serious liver conditions Infections such as schistosomiasis, TB, and HIV Source: Global Handbook, updated 2011.
Benefits of FP for All Women • Lower risk of maternal death • Lower risk of anemia, poor pregnancy outcomes and complications, and complications related to miscarriage or unsafe abortion • Non-contraceptive benefits from some methods such as protection from: • Disease transmission/acquisition • Certain cancers and other gynecological problems • Improved educational and economic opportunities Tailor messages to best serve needs of clients. Source: Lloyd, 2008; Wilcher, 2008.
Benefits of FP for Children • Longer breastfeeding: • Provides nutrition • Protects from childhood diseases • Improves mother/child bonding • Reduces child illness and death • Allows more time and resources for parents to meet the needs of each child Source: Rutstein, 2005; Demographic and Health Surveys, various years.
Benefits of FP for Families and Communities • Families can devote more resources to providing for each child • Reduced maternal and child illness reduces economic strain on family • Reduced maternal deaths strengthen families and communities • Relieves economic, social, and environmental pressures • Enhances women’s status and promotes equality between men and women
Benefits of FP for People Living with HIV Experience same benefits as others Additional benefits include: Reduction in number of childrenborn HIV-positive (by reducing number of unintended pregnancies) Reduction in number of children born who could become orphans _ Couples can use family planning until they are ready to get pregnant
Key Timing, Spacing, and Limiting Messages to Share with Clients Women and infants may get sick or die if a pregnancy happens: Too early among adolescents delay first pregnancy until 18 years Too soon after giving birth wait at least 24 months before trying to become pregnant Too soon after an abortion or miscarriage delay trying to become pregnant at least 6 months Too late in a woman’s life plan prior to age 35 After having four children risks increase with each pregnancy Source: WHO 1995; ESD, 2008.
Family Planning and Human Rights All individuals and couples have the right: “…to decide freely and responsibly the number, spacing and timing of their children and to have the information, education, and means to do so, and the right to attain the highest standard of sexual and reproductive health...” – ICPD Programme of Action Source: United Nations, 1995.
Improves well-being of families and communities Helps achieve the healthiest outcomes for women and their children Benefits of Providing FP Services Allow women and couples to delay, space, and limit pregnancies FP services are most effective when clients are free to make informed choices.
Family Planning and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) End Hunger and Poverty Increase Education Support Partnerships FamilyPlanning Save the Environment Empower Women Improve Infant Health Decrease HIV/AIDS Improve Maternal Health Source: United Nations, 2000; Cates, 2010.