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Chapter Nine

Chapter Nine

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Chapter Nine

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  1. Chapter Nine Unraveling Sex and Gender

  2. Define Sex Gender Are they the same or different?

  3. Think about your household now…Think about your household growing up… List the male jobs…. List the female jobs…. Does a pattern form? “Pink and blue jobs.”

  4. How do you REALLY feel??? • How do you feel about a woman making more money than a man? • Who pays on a first date? • Should men still be “chivalrous?” • How do you feel about a father being a stay at home dad? • Is it more acceptable to be a female or male exotic dancer?

  5. How do you feel when you see a male nurse? • Would you be more comfortable with an experienced female doctor or less experienced male doctor? • How would you describe a female boss? • When does no mean no? • Can a man be raped by a female?

  6. Biological and Psychological Perspectives • Men Are From Mars / Women Are From Venus • Male – female behavior • Programmed through our own genetic make up • Passed down from generation to the next • Body and brain chemistry help define sex/gender roles

  7. What is sex? • The biological distinction– develops before birth (physiology) • Mix of biology & society • An act of intimacy • Physical and Psychological factors • Western industrialized Society: • Related to physical attaction • Reflected by other factors including race, social class, gender

  8. Myths • Sexual identity: • “Hot – Blooded” Latinas / Latinos • AA females– promiscuous nymphomaniacs • AA males – sexually potent • Blondes have more fun Myths vary according to cultural and global contexts. Social class: Miss America Pageant

  9. What is gender? • Socially constructed attitudes, meanings, beliefs, and behaviors • Gender is determined by society based on its perception of male and female qualities and communicated through the dominant ideology

  10. Androgyny • Incorporates social and personalizty characteristics associated with math and female. • Males in touch with feminine side: compassionate, discerning, receptive, cooperative, and understanding • Females: Strong Logical, Dominant, Independent, Rational, Ambitious, and Competitive

  11. Gender Characteristics • Not universal and change over time: • Tchambuli tribes – gender roles reversed • Historically – minimal (hunting / gathering)

  12. Psychological Explanation • Focuses on dysfunction as it is related to sex, gender, and sexuality. • Studies why those dysfunctions occur and what is needed to correct • Freud: • Sexual Identity: begins in early childhood • Libido – major instincts driving force to define human beings • Two basic drives: (Men and Women have varying degrees) • Eros (greek God of love) • Thanatos (Greek meaning death / aggressive instincts)

  13. Sociological PerspectivesStructural Functional • Did not endorse gendered division of labor – perceived it as natural, inevitable, and necessary • Traditional gender roles are important not only for individuals – but for economic and social order of society. • Gender roles are socially defined activities, behaviors, and attitudes deemed appropriate for each sex and learned through the process of socialization • The society would be a better place in which to live and work if systems remained stable and people were integrated into the dominant culture. • For a society to survive, it must reproduce itself and train its offspring to perform functions vital to the operation of society • Society defines and socializes its members into gender roles

  14. Social Conflict • Gendered division of labor results from male control and dominance over women and valued resources • Research shows very few systems are matriarchy (most are in 3rd world or underdeveloped countries) • Women may be making gains but… • Pay • Technological contributions unnoticed

  15. Feminism • Aligned with Karl Marx’s Social Conflict Perspective • Feminists feel gender stratification must be eliminated • Liberal Feminists • Same rights as AA under Civil Rights Acts • Support institution of family – but ambitions for both must be supported • Socialist Feminists • Housework drudgery • Stay at home wives = domestic slaves • Current conditions – fostered by capitalism (keeps women dependent) • Radical Feminists • Men are necessary evils • Goal is to wipe out gender roles and inequalities • Non-gender clothing, hair cuts, names, etc… • Must be legally enforced (gender neutrality)

  16. Brainstorm….. • Think of the following picture books: • Snow White • Cinderella • Rapunzle • Sleeping Beauty • Hansel and Gretel • What “gender role” does the male / female play?

  17. Socializing Agents • Family • Begins as soon as birth • Décor of the nursery, clothing (blue boys / pink girls) • School • Through academics, sports, discipline • Peers • Those whom we want to be like, see as friends, identify • The Workplace • Unequal salary • “Boys” club. • Media • Religion and Politics

  18. Politics • Last Presidential Election • (Democrats) Female vs. Minority • Sarah Palin • Shoots • Teenager pregnant • Stay at home dad (with “male” hobby) • Mother of a special needs child

  19. Sexuality and Deviance • Heterosexuality • Homosexuality • Transvestitism • Transsexuals • Sociological perspective: Deviance is in the mind of the beholder.

  20. Domestic ViolenceSexual Harassment • Sexual Harassment: violates Title IV of Civil Rights Act – affording employees the right to work in a hostile-free environment, free from discriminatory ridicule, hostility, insult or intimidation • Sexual harassment: unwelcome sexual advances, requests or favors, and other verbal or phsyical conduct of a sexual nature.