The Odyssey Exploring Homer’s epic poem and the epic hero
Student Objectives • Identify and explain the elements of a Greek myth • Identify and explain the elements of an epic poem and a hero’s journey • Identify and explain the characteristics of an epic hero • Analyze the relationship between myths and legends and epic poetry • Examine the historical context of literary works
Reading Power Standards • Power Standard 4: Make and support inferences and predictions, and utilize strategies to ensure comprehension (mental imagery, self-questioning, and graphic organizers). (2.1.5) • Power Standard 5: Analyze, evaluate, and draw conclusions about story elements and devices and explain how they are used to effectively convey a diversity of author ideas or meaning. (2.2.3) • Power Standard 8: Compare and contrast. Analyze and evaluate the presentation of an idea in multiple texts. (2.4.6)
Day 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 • We will be creating a Gods and Monsters power point. • You will be assigned partners for this project, and we will be going to the library for the next three days. • You will receive a hand out explaining the assignment and the expectations. You can also access the information on my wiki page. • Stevensbhhs.pbworks.com
Day 7 • Warm Up • “What is a hero? Who is a hero? Why do we need or want them?” • The Odyssey and other stories about quests are found in film, TV, computer games, and literature • What are examples? • What are qualities of current heroes?
Key Terms • You will need to know and understand the following terminology: *allusion *heroic couplet *narrative * epic poem *hubris *oral tradition *Invocation *xenia *simile *epic hero *mythology/myths *Greek fate vs free will *external conflicts *epic simile *odyssey *Homeric epithets *Rhapsodies
Day 7 Continued • I will divide you into pairs to define the three key literary terms on the white boards at the back of the room: Epic, Myth, and External Conflict. • You will create a Concept of Definition Map for each of the terms and tape them under the correct literary term. • Why are these terms important? What do you need to do to make sure you know and understand them by the time we take the unit test?
Day 8 Heroes and Monsters • Warm Up: Define the three literary terms we have studied so far in this unit: epic (poem), myth, and external conflict • Purpose of today’s lesson: Reading with a purpose and background knowledge. • First we will look at The Odyssey Introductory Power Point. • Next, turn to the Heroes and Monsters page in your Odyssey booklets. (labeled pgs 738-739) • We will read each paragraph and then answer the question about that paragraph. • I will reveal each question right before you read the paragraph.
Day 8 Cont • Paragraph questions: • What is the definition of good and evil? • What makes a monster monstrous? • When does the ordeal begin? • What is the religious theme? • How did it help you knowing the question before you read the paragraph rather than after you had finished reading all 4 paragraphs?
Day 9 Introduction to the Odyssey pg.740-747 • Warm Up: Why did the Greeks go to Troy in the first place? What was Odysseus’ role in the Trojan War? Name one other character from The Iliad and that character’s role. • Turn to An Introduction to the Odyssey labeled pg. 740 in your booklet. • Today we will be using power notes to help understand the material and to practice writing one sentence summaries.
Day 9 Cont. • Power Notes/Thinking for paragraphs 1 & 2 • Intro to the Odyssey 2. Homer’s importance 3. 3,000 yrs ago in Greece 3.gatherer of great war stories 4.Iliad and Odyssey 2. Stories based on need to control waterways/trade routes 3. may have taken place as early as 1200 B.C.
Day 9 Cont. Now complete power notes for the next two paragraphs based on the numbers below. 2. 3. 3. 4. 3. 4. 4. 2. 3. 3.
Day 9 Cont. Now complete power notes for the next two paragraphs based on the numbers below. 2. The Iliad 3. About the 10 yr war outside Troy 3. Fought between Trojans and alliance of Greek Kings 4. each island or city had its own king 3. War started when Helen ran away with Paris 4. Husband Menelaus Greek King 4. Paris prince of Troy 2. The Odyssey 3. Story of Odysseus trying to get home after the Trojan War 3. All Western epics based on patterns of these two stories
Day 9 Cont. • In your table groups, complete the power notes for Epics and values. 2. Epics and Values 3. Epics 4. 4. 4. 3.Epic for Westerners means Iliad and Odyssey (just give any 2 ex.) 4. 4. 3. Iliad and Odyssey both models for epics 4. 4. 5. 5. 5. 4. • What is the next 2 going to be?
Day 9 Cont. • In your table groups, complete the power notes for Epics and values. 2. Epics and Values 3. Epics 4. Poems of heroes that show values of civ. 4. Greeks used Iliad and Odyssey to teach values 4. Later cultures imitated Homer’s style with their own values 3.Epic for Westerners means Iliad and Odyssey 4. Rome’s Aeneid 4. France’s Song of Roland 3. Iliad and Odyssey both models for epics 4. Iliad epic for war 4. Odyssey epic for long journey/quest 5. Incredible Journey 5. The Hobbit 5. Star Wars 4. Odyssey more widely read of the 2 stories
Day 10 • Today we will review Power Notes and then practice One Sentence Summaries. • Create Power Notes for The War-Story Background: Violence and Brutality • For the remaining paragraphs of the introduction, we will write one sentence summaries. Be sure to include important characters names, events and ideas in your summary. • Limit your summary to one sentence.
Day 10 Cont. 2. The War-Story Background 3. Background for Odysseus story found in Iliad 4. 10th & final year of Trojan War 4. Greeks attack Troy b/c Helen ran off w/ Paris 4. Greeks banded together under Agamemnon 4. Sailed to Troy in 1,000 ships 3. Readers of The Odyssey would know this story 4. Greeks won enslaving or killing all Trojans 4. Greek hero Achilles died last year of war 4. Probably other, now lost, epics of Greek heroes homecomings 4. Especially Agamemnon, who was murdered by unfaithful wife. 3. Homer’s listeners would have been fascinated by Greek hero known for brains and brawn. 4. Many legends surrounded new hero Odysseus 4. He is subject of The Odyssey
Day10 Cont. • For the remaining paragraphs of the introduction, we will write one sentence summaries. Be sure to include important characters names, events and ideas in your summary. • Limit your summary to one sentence. • Model Sentences: • Description: A ____ is a kind of ____ that … • Contrast: ____ and ____ are similar in that they both… but ___ … while … • Sequence: ___ begins with … continues with … and ends with … • Problem/Solution: ____ wanted… but … so… • Cause/Effect: ____ happens because … or _____ causes…For the remaining paragraphs of the introduction, we will write one sentence summaries. Be sure to include important characters names, events and ideas in your summary. • Limit your summary to one sentence.
Day 10 Cont. • Practice for 1 Sentence Summaries Odysseus: A Hero in Trouble Description: A Greek hero was a confident person placed between gods and ordinary human beings. Description: Odysseus was a different kind of hero who was in trouble and faced difficult choices. Desc: The Odyssey is a story about the lack of respect Odysseus receives after the war from the gods, monsters and even his fellow countrymen. Sequence: It begins when Odysseus marries his wife Penelope, a beautiful and strong Greek woman. Sequence: It begins with Odysseus and Penelope having a son, Telemachus, before Odysseus is called on to join the Trojan War, continues with Odysseus pretending to be crazy in an attempt to avoid going to war, and ends with Odysseus’ sanity being revealed.
Day 11 • Continue the 1 sentence summaries for the remainder of the introduction. • The Wooden-Horse Trick • The Ancient World and Ours • A Search for Their Place in Life (2) • Relationships with the Gods (2) • Who was Homer? (2) • How were Epics Told? (1) • A Live Performance (2) • Review The People and Places in The Odyssey • Review the map of Odysseus’ adventure.
Day 12 Warm Up • Define the following terms based on your notes from the introduction. • Epic Poem/Poetry • Oral Tradition • Epic Hero • Myth • External conflict • Odyssey (the noun, not proper noun title of story) • Rhapsodies
Day 12 • Read the Trojan War packet. • Answer the following questions: • What specific event started the Trojan War? • Who were the 2 brothers that led the Greek armies? • Why were the Greeks going to sacrifice Iphigenia? • How long did the Trojan War last? • How did the Greeks end the war? • How long did it take Odysseus to get home? • What were the reasons Clymnestra killed her husband?
Day 13 Warm Up • Literary Terms to add to your notes. You will be quizzed and tested on these terms. • ALLUSION – Reference to a statement, person, place or event from literature, history religion, mythology, science, etc. Example: “Her hair was a tangled mess making her look like Medusa.” • EPIC SIMILE- An extended simile, as used in the epic poetry of Homer and other writers. Example: As when the shudder of the west wind suddenly rising scatters across the water, and the water darkens beneath it, so darkening were settled the ranks of Achaians and Trojans in the plain. • GREEK FATE VS FREE WILL- The belief that gods engineer fate and they interfere to make things happen that might not otherwise have happened vs the concept of having full authority over one's aspirations and ultimate direction. Example: Odysseus’ journey. Had he not upset the gods, he would have had a standard journey home rather than his epic adventure. • HEROIC COUPLET- A stanza consisting of two successive lines of verse; usually rhymed. Example: Know then thyself, presume not God to scan / The proper study of Mankind is Man. • HOMERIC EPITHETS- Descriptive phrase that is regularly used to characterize a person, place or thing in The Odyssey. Example: “wine dark sea.”
Day 13 Warm Up Continued • Literary Terms Continued • Xenia - Greek laws of hospitality. That all guests are safe from attack under a host’s roof, even if they are the hosts enemy. Example: Odysseus expected Polyphemus to follow the laws of xenia, so he was shocked when Polyphemus killed 2 of his men. • Narrative - A story or account of events, experiences, or the like, whether true or fictitious. Example: The Iliad/ the Odyssey. • Invocation - The act of invoking or calling upon a deity, spirit, etc., for aid, protection, inspiration, or the like; supplication. Example: Polyphemus makes an invocation to Poseidon to delay Odysseus journey home and to bring him tragedy. • Simile - A comparison between 2 dissimilar things using like or as. Example: Hercules is as strong as an ox. • Hubris - Excessive pride or self-confidence; arrogance. Example: Odysseus taunting Polyphemus. • Odyssey - a long series of wanderings or adventures, especially when filled with notable experiences, hardships, etc. Example:The Hobbit
JOURNAL # 2 – 3/15/12 “PREDICTIONS” Immediately following the Trojan War, Odysseus makes a HUGE error that, in turn, angers the gods. Make a prediction of what Odysseus said and/or did to infuriate them so much. Next, make a prediction of what will happen on the Island of the Cyclops…give details! Now, DRAW YOUR OWN VERSION OF A CYCLOPS – FULL BODY. ADD COLOR! Be creative--It could be a baby cyclops, a sexy cyclops, a sporty cyclops jock, a headbangercyclops, etc….
Day 13 • Begin The Odyssey “Into the One-eyed Giant’s Cave” • Write a one sentence summary for each of the adventures he faces in this chapter: • Cicones • Lotus Eaters • Cyclops • Summary of why he goes to Cyclops’ island • Summary of capture • Summary of escape from cave • Summary of escape from island
Day 15 • Finish The Odyssey “Into the One-eyed Giant’s Cave” and 1 sentence summaries • Answer the Following Questions: • How does Polyphemus go against of xenia in this story? • Show an example of hubris in this story • Why didn’t Odysseus just kill the Cyclops? • Why didn’t the other Cyclopes help? • What does Polyphemus ask his father for? This is an example of which literary term? • Find and write down as many Homeric Epithets as possible. • Find and write down 2 examples of an epic simile. • CFA for The Odyssey “Into the One-eyed Giant’s Cave” Ungraded quiz to check for understanding at the end of the period. • Graded quiz on the Cyclops story is tomorrow.
Day 16 • Read “The Bewitching Queen of Aeaea” and write a 1 sentence summary for each part of the adventure • Aeolian Island • Laestrygonians • Scouting party on Circes Island and warning Odysseus • Odysseus tricking Circe and staying • Odysseus wanting to leave and Circe’s advice • Introduction Quiz on Friday. Reading Quiz on Circe Monday.
Day 17 • Questions to Answer on Circe before the quiz: • What lessons or moral do you think the story of Aeolus and the bag of wind is trying to teach? Why • Why does Aeolus refuse to help Odysseus a 2nd time? • Do the Laestrygonians follow the Greek laws of Xenia? • Who are the Laestrygones? • Which of Odysseus’ men does not fall for Circe’s trap? • How many Homeric Epithets can you find? Write each epithet and how many times you find it. • What external conflicts does Odysseus face in Book 10? • Who helps Odysseus avoid Circe’s trap? • What information does Circe give Odysseus to help him on his journey?
Day 17 • Reading Quiz on Book 10 (Circe) • Why do the men open the bag of winds? • How does Circe cast her spells on men? • Why is Odysseus not changed into a swine? • How does Odysseus get his men changed back? • How does Hermes help Odysseus on his way to Circe’s island? • Why does Eurylochus make Odysseus so upset (that he wants to chop off his head)? • How are the Laestrygonians a danger to Odysseus & his men?
Day 18 • Read “The Kingdom of the Dead” • Who does Odysseus talk to in the Kingdom of the Dead? Make a list. • What does important information does Odysseus learn from Tiresias while he is there? • Why is Odysseus’ mother there? What happened to her? • Who does Odysseus see last? • How many examples of a Homeric Epithet can you find? Write them down. • How many epic similes can you find? Write at least one down and count the others.
Day 19 • Warm Up Question: If you were leading your friends and had to choose between these two scenarios, which would you choose and why? • Guaranteed to lose 6 members of your group, chosen at random OR • 50/50 chance to make a safe passage unscathed or get every member of the party, including yourself, killed.
Day 19 Book 12 The Cattle of the Sun • Who is Odysseus’ father? • Give 2 different examples of a Homeric epithet from this section. • What 5 perils does Circe warn Odysseus about? • Which of these perils does he avoid completely? • What warning does Circe give Odysseus about Scylla? Does he listen? • How does Odysseus avoid the Sirens? • Why didn’t Odysseus tell his men about Scylla? • What epic simile does Homer use to describe Scylla’s attack? • What epic simile does Homer use to describe Charybdis? • What happened to cause Odysseus’ men to break their oath and eat Helios’ cattle? • Who kills Odysseus’ men and destroys his ship? How? • Where does Odysseus wash ashore after drifting at sea?
Day 20 Warm Up • If you were given the choice between staying on an island with a gorgeous god/goddess and being immortal or being able to go home to your wife and baby who you had not seen in 20 years, which would you choose? Why?
Day 20 Book 5 The Nymph & Shipwreck • Who appeals to Zeus for Odysseus’ release from Calypso? • How does Zeus help Odysseus get released from Ogygyia? • What is the Homeric Epithet used to describe Hermes? • How does Calypso respond to the gods’ request to release Odysseus? • What is Odysseus’ response to Calypso when she says she will help him get home? • What does Calypso promise Odysseus if he stays with her? • What reason does Odysseus give Calypso for needing to go home? • Who tries to stop Odysseus return? How? • Name the two goddesses who help save Odysseus from drowning. • Give the epic simile used during Odysseus fight to stay alive (p. 164) • Give the epic simile used to describe Odysseus’ attempts to climb out of the ocean and onto the rocks. • How does Odysseus hide himself once he is on the island? • What is the epic simile used to compare his hideout?
The Meeting of Father and Son Q’s • Which god obstructs Odysseus’ journey home THE MOST? Explain why you chose him. • Who is Odysseus’ son? Why has been gone for a year? • Who is planning on killing Odysseus’ son and why? How does he avoid the assassination attempt? • Why is Telemachus upset with his mother Penelope? • Who is the swineherd Odysseus visits first when he arrives home? What is he afraid happened to Telemachus on his journey? • Give 2 examples of irony in the story. What type of irony is each example? • What is Odysseus’ disguise? Who disguised him? • Give an example of xenia from the story. • How is Odysseus’ true form revealed? Why does it happen? • Give an example of 2 epic or Homeric similes in the story. • When Odysseus is revealed to his son, who does his son think Odysseus is? Why? • How does Penelope put off marrying her suitors? • Who recognizes Odysseus, even in his disguise? What happens to him after he recognizes Odysseus? • How might the treatment of Odysseus’ dog reflect the situation in Ithaca? • What news does Telemachus not share with Penelope?
Odysseus Strings His Bow ?’s • How do the suitors treat Odysseus? • Who is the nurse maid that recognizes Odysseus because of the scar on his leg? • What challenge does she give the suitors? Why do you think Penelope holds the contest among the suitors? • Who is the leader of the suitors? • How do the suitors fair with the challenge? Give 2 specific examples. • Why does Eurymachus say Penelope shouldn’t let the beggar try the challenge? • What is the reason Penelope says the suitors should hang their heads in shame? What key term does this relate to? • What instructions are given to Eurycleia? • What Epic simile is used to describe Odysseus’ observation of his bow? (pg 437)
Slaughter in the Hall ?’s • Write 2 similes (not epic similes) from the selection • Which suitor does Odysseus kill first? How does he die? • What deal does Eurymachus try to make with Odysseus in order to spare the suitors’ lives? • Why does Odysseus say “no” to Eurymachus’ proposal? • Why does Odysseus say he is going to kill the suitors? • Who fights with Odysseus against the suitors? • Which god or goddess helps Odysseus in his battle with the suitors?
Odysseus and Penelope Questions • What happens to the housemaids who had love affairs with the suitors? • What is Penelope’s response when Eurycleia says Odysseus has returned? • How does Penelope respond when Odysseus reveals his true self to Penelope? Why would she question if it was truly Odysseus? • What does Athena do to help Odysseus before he meets up with Penelope that evening? How does this backfire? • How does Odysseus react when Penelope questions his identity? What is hypocritical about this? • How does Penelope test to see if the stranger is truly her husband? What is Odysseus’ response that lets her know it is her husband? • What is an epithet? Give an example of 2 from anywhere in the Odyssey. • Give 2 examples from the Odyssey where Odysseus’ hubris cost him greatly. • Why do you think Athena favored Odysseus and helped him throughout the story? • Based on the story and Odysseus, what predictions can you make about Telemachus? • What is Odysseus’ main goal throughout the Odyssey? • What theme and Greek belief explains Odysseus’ inability to avoid the turmoil in his life?
Characters You Need to Know! • Homer Laertes • Hermes Calypso • Circe Polyphemus • PhaeaciansLastrygones • Athena Zeus • Poseidon Antinous • Telemachus Penelope • EumaeusEurymachus • EurycleiaLeocritus • Agamemnon Aeolus • Alcinous
Odyssey Vocabulary Review • Invocation a. reference to a person, place or event from literature • Hubris b. a hero who faces pain and death and difficult choices • Simile c. a long story that tell about the adventures of a hero • Epic simile d. comparing heroic deeds to everyday events or actions • Xenia e. a protagonists struggle against outside forces • Greek fate vs free will f. belief that gods control what happens more than human choices • Epic hero g. a descriptive phrase used repeatedly to describe a scene • Allusion h. arrogance or extreme pride • Narrative i. traditional story used to explain natural phenomenon • Oral tradition j. a story of events or experiences and can be fictional or true • Myths k. a long series of wanderings or adventures • External conflict l. ancient tradition of passing knowledge on by word of mouth • Odyssey m. Greek minstrels that traveled telling stories and news • Homeric epithets o. Comparison between 2 dissimilar things using like or as • Rhapsodies p. Greek laws of hospitality • Epic poem q. the act of calling on a god or spirit for aid
Odyssey Review Questions • What are Rhapsodies? What is an oral tradition? How are the two related? • What is the name of the technique used by ancient story tellers where they repeated descriptive phrases throughout a story? • What is an epic hero? Explain how Odysseus is or is not an epic hero. • What are Odysseus’ heroic flaws? Give 2 examples from the story. • What are 3 characteristics that the Greeks admired about Odysseus. Give an example of each from the story. • What makes you think these 3 characteristics were admired by the Greeks? • What is Xenia? Give at least 2 examples from the story that let us know the importance of xenia to the Greeks. • What is external conflict? Give 2 new examples of external conflict for Odysseus. • What do similes and epic similes have in common? How is an epic simile slightly different than a simile? • What is an odyssey? How does it relate to the title of the story, The Odyssey? • What is an invocation? Give two examples where they are used in the story. • Do you think the Greeks would have been upset by the slaughter of the suitors? Why or why not? • Which is more responsible for the fact it took Odysseus 20 years to get home. Fate or free will? Explain why you chose your answer and use at least 2 examples to support your answer.
Character Review Part 1 • Laertes a. Sea nymph who Odysseus stayed with • Calypso b. Phaeacian king • Polyphemus c. Odysseus’ wife • Antinous e. Suitor who tried to buy his safety • Telemachus f. Odysseus’ father • Penelope g. swine herd who helped Odysseus • Eumaeus h. Cyclops who cursed Odysseus • Eurymachusi. leader of the suitors • Eurycleia j. Odysseus’ son • Leocritus k. nurse who recognized Odysseus • Alcinous l. suitor who supported attacking Odysseus
Character Review Part 2 • Homer a. goddess who supported Odysseus • Hermes b. god who tried to stop Odysseus the most • Circe c. author of the Odyssey • Phaeacians d. Greek king killed by his wife • Lastrygones e. messenger god who helps Odysseus • Aeolus f. man-eating giants • Zeus g. sea-faring people who help Odysseus get home • Poseidon h. Wind king who helps Odysseus once • Athena i. god who kills the last of Odysseus’ men and destroys his ship. • Agamemnon j. Sorceress who helps Odysseus