Collecting Research • You will be creating two types of note cards: • Source Cards • 2. Research note cards
Creating Source Cards • Source cards are note cards that cite each source exactly as you will use them on your work cited page. • Each note card you create should correspond to one of these sources. • Copy down the information exactly. Source card information will be translated into your Works Cited page at the end of the essay process. • You must have a minimum of 3 different sources for your research. At least one of these must be other than an electronic source.
When Creating a Source Card Remember: • To number the card and number all cards that pertain to the source. • To write the source information exactly as it appears in your documentation handout. • To be as precise and accurate as possible. The purpose of citing sources is so the reader can access the original source. • To only have one source per card.
Examples of Source Cards For a Book: Name, per. Source # . . : , . Author Title State of Publication publisher Date of publication Example: Lewis, David Levering. W.E.B. DuBois. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1994.
Now you try: • Information for a book: • Published in Colorado • Marsh Cassady is the author • Publishers: Meriwether Publishing Ltd. • Book title is The Theater and You • 1992 is the year it was published
Tips and Reminders when citing a book: • Author’s names are listed last name, first name. • If a book has an editor remember to write “ed. ” following the name. • Books that have two authors or editors require that both authors names be listed in alphabetical order, but the first author appears last name, first name & the second author appears first name followed by last name. • Books with three or more authors list the first author followed by “et al.” which suggests muliple authors. Buckley, Kerry W., and David Levering Lewis. Lewis, David Levering, et al.
For a Magazine, Journal, Periodical or Newspaper (Includes database services such as Newsbank!) Name, per. Source # . “Title.” : Page numbers . Author Magazine . Date of Publication Example: Snider, Anne. “Mark Twain Legacy.” Newsweek . 1 Feb. 2002: 2-10.
Now You Try: • Information for a Magazine Article: • The publication is Newsweek • The date published is the 8th of December, 2003 • The author is Kenneth L. Woodward • The Article title is God’s Woman Trouble. • Page 60
Tips for citing the following sources: Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, or newspaper with one or more authors: • When numbering pages use "12-13" if page numbers are consecutive. Use "44+" if article contains more than one page but paging is not consecutive. • Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, "day month year" (no commas) in this order is required. Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only "month year“ (no comma) is needed. • Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e.g. Globe and Mail [Toronto].
For the Internet Name, per. Source # . . . Author “Title of Article.” Title of Web Site Date last modified . . Group responsible for site Date accessed <web address url> Example: Smith, James. “Children and Stress.” The Children’s Page. March 2001. Academy of Adolescent Psychiatry. 2 Feb. 2002 <http:www.child.org>.
Now You Try: • Information for a website: • The url is: http://www.jimhopper.com/abstats/ • The author’s name is: Jim Hopper, Ph.D. He is also the sponsoring “group”. • The article in the website is titled: Child Abuse: Statistics, Research and Resources • The title of the website is: www.jimhopper.com • The website was last updated on 11/18/2003 • I accessed the information on Jan. 19, 2004
Tips and Reminders when Citing the Internet: • If there is no author, begin with the title of the article. • "Title of Article" is always in quotation marks. • The Title of the Web Site itself, magazine, journal, newspaper, newsletter, book, encyclopedia, or project is underlined. • If the URL is too long for a line, divide the URL where it creates the least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. do not divide a domain name and end with a period such as geocities. • Do not divide a term in the URL that is made up of combined words e.g. SchoolHouseRock. • Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and carry on, e.g. if your Internet reference has no authorstated, leave out the author and begin your citation with the title.
Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and be treated differently by some browsers. • Remember that the purpose of indicating the URL is for readers to be able to access the Web page. Accuracy and clarity are essential.
Creating Note Cards • At the top of each card you must write your last name, period & source card number. • Only one quote, idea, paraphrase per card! (minimum total for research = 50 note cards) • For statistics and quotations remember to include the exact page number that the text came from. • When copying a direct quote, be sure to put the text in quotation marks, so you know to give it due credit. • Do not cut up text and glue it to your cards. It needs to be in your own handwriting.
Note Card Format Name, class period source # Label 1 Quote, fact, heroic trait, idea
Sample Note card (paraphrase) Brown, per. 2 SC#1 at Harvard At Harvard, DuBois’ schooling centered around history and some philosophy but gradually shifted toward economic and social problems.
Quotation Example Brown, per. 2 SC #1 New Slavery "Drunk with power, we (the U.S.) are leading the world to hell in a new colonialism with the same old human slavery, which once ruined us, to a third world war, which will ruin the world."
Internal Documentation Common Rules All books, encyclopedia, newspaper and magazine titles are underlined. “Titles of articles”in encyclopedias, magazines and newspapers are in quote marks. The parentheses go before the ending punctuation (like this). Think of the parentheses as part of the sentence.
Internal Documentation Common Rules Continued….. The quote marks go around the quote, but not around the parentheses. “Even if the parentheses go at the end of a direct quote” (they look like this). You do not need to use p. or pp. For page numbers, just use the numerals (Poe 12). Note that there is no comma after Poe. For volume numbers in a multiple volume work(SATA 4: 54-56). The name of the encyclopedia (abbreviations OK) followed by a colon: followed by the page numbers. Do not put Vol. Or p. or pp.
Specific Examples Magazines and Newspapers ·Use the author’s name plus page number. Example “Critics have described King as, ‘the best writer of modern horror on the market today’” (Johnson 32). ·If there is no author, use the title of the article: Example Danielle Steel’s books are, “…not good literature, but they sell like hotcakes” (“Danielle Steel-Queen of Romance” 12).
Internet Sources The general rule of thumb here is that most web pages will have authors, editors, or a title. To cite a source, simply put the author or editor’s name in parentheses. If there is no author or editor use the name of the article. If no article title, use the website title. Do not give page numbers, do not give <URL> addresses; the reader can look in the works cited page and access the website for information. ·If there is an author or editor for your article use this form: Example “The Challenger’s O-rings were not meant to stand up to low temperatures” (Feynman).
Internet Continued…. ·If there is not an author, use this form: Example “The Ebola virus can be contained by using simple preventative measures” (“Preventing the Spread of Ebola”). ·If there is neither an author nor an article title, use this form: Example “This woman is the smartest man that ever came to Canajoharie” (Biography Resource Center).
Books… Use the author’s name plus page number. Books with one author Example: “Twain based Huck’s character on that of a young boy in Hannibal” (Cook 12). If the book has no author, but has an editor use this form (Hahn 88).
More Books… If the book has no author and no editor, use the title of the book, underlined, and the page number. Example “Supernatural phenomena are prevalent in New Mexico” (UFOs 15). If the quote is from a book with two authors, use this form: Example It has been said that “Twain possesses sensibility, imagination and memory, but little power of refection” (Roth and Bond 25).
If the book has three or more authors, use the first author’s name and et al: (et al means “and others,” and since it is Latin you need to underline it) Example Twain often records what he sees, in fact “…he inspects and explores and tests his world, but he does not interpret it” (Grace et al 212). If you have more than one book by the same author, use the same author, use the title of the book plus the page number. Example “I tried to explain. Being with Diamond was nothing.” (A Yellow Raft on Blue Water 157).