(10.2)Chapter 16 Turkey, Secularist Reform. Reform efforts in the Ottoman Empire; secular state under Atatürk and successors; partial return to religion.
Population of Turkey in millions 1927 13.6 1980 44.7 1990 56.5 2008 73.9
Ottoman Empire: From “Terrible Turk” to “Sick man of Europe” 1683 Ottoman siege of Vienna 1699 Treaty of Carlowitz, Hungary Iost 1718 Major defeat by Austria 1774 Loss of Crimea to Russia, Treaty of Kücük Kaynarca 1821-30 Greek war of independence 1840 European powers force Muhammad Ali to retreat from Syria 1875 Default on foreign loans (debt administered from 1882) 1878 Rumania, Serbia Montenegro independent with Russian support, Bulgaria autonomous; Austrians occupy Bosnia 1908-13 Almost all the rest of the Balkans lost 1912 Italy takes Libya 1914-18 WW1, Arab revolt, war lost 1919 Greeks invade 1920 British & French Mandates of Arab territory; Treaty of Sevres
Reforms (Westernizing) 1718-30 “Tulip Age”, superficial, abortive 1792-1807 Nizam-i Jedid (New Order), abortive 1826 Janissaries destroyed, reforms, including free trade, fez 1839-77 Tanzimat: major reforms 1876 Constitution 1876-1909 Sultan Abdul Hamid; Constitution suspended; Din u Devlet; Pan-Islam and claim to caliphate. 1908 Revolution by CUP; “Turkification”
Tanzimat reforms • Equality before the law for religious minorities (1839, 1856). • Penal law codified (1840-58, from Qanun) and • Family laws codified (1869-76, Hanafi fiqh), put under new Ministry of Justice • Commercial code based on French law (1850, outside Shari‘a). • Civil courts (1868, alongside Shari‘a courts) • Ministry of Education, state secondary schools begun (by 1850) • Land reform (1858) • Introduction of postal system (1834), telegraph (1855), railroads (from 1866)
Tanzimat, ctd Effects • Introduce some Western ideas and practices. • Strengthen power of central government, vis-à-vis other forces, including ‘ulama’. • Set up dual systems, religious and secular in education and courts. • Affected the elite, mainly.
Turkish resurgence and turn to secularism: 1920 Treaty of Sevres 1920 Grand National Assembly formed in Ankara under Mustafa Kemal 1921 Defeat of Greeks, GNA gives Mustafa Kemal title of ghazi 1921 Constitution giving sovereignty to the nation 1922 Sultanate abolished 1923 Treaty of Lausanne 1923 Republic declared, Mustafa Kemal elected president 1924 Caliphate abolished 1924 Population exchange between Greece and Turkey 1924-37 Secularizing reforms in many areas.
Major secularist reforms • 1921 Constitution states "Sovereignty belongs unconditionally to the nation." • 1928 Islam ceases to be the religion of state. Laicism (laiklik) explicitly affirmed in 1937. • Shari‘a law replaced by civil code adapted from Swiss code (1926) • Madreses closed (1924), • Government Department of Religious affairs replaced office of Shaykh al-Islam • Sufi tariqas disbanded (1925) • Adhan to be given in Turkish rather than Arabic (1932). • Western garb to be worn, the fez forbidden (1925), veiling by women discouraged. • Polygyny outlawed. • Equal rights for men and women in education, employment, voting, divorce. • Roman script replaces Arabic script.
Some statements of Atatürk “How happy is the one who can say, ‘I am a Turk.’” “In life the truest guide (mürsit) is science.” "Our aim is to establish a modern, therefore a Western state in Turkey." (Binnaz, 144) “It was necessary to abolish the fez, which sat on our heads as a sign of ignorance, of fanaticism, of hatred to progress and civilization . . .” (McNeill & Waldman 446) "The straightest, truest tariqa is the way (tariqa) of civilization. To be a man, it is enough to do what civilization requires." (Mortimer 141) A different viewpoint: “Fear not; how can this faith of a people be smothered by that monster called “Civilization” which has but one tooth left in its jaw.” Mehmet Akif (Mortimer 134)
Kemalism a secular religion? • State deified? “Eternal Turkish nation”, “sacred Turkish state” (Constitution) • State = "that incorporeal but holy entity that is the center of Turkey's consciousness" (Kinzer 127) • Atatürk deified ?: a “virtual deity” (Kinzer). • military and political elite “clergy” (Kinzer) • Atatürk’s Mausoleum as its “Mecca”. (Kinzer) • But: Islam as part of Turkish national identity
Politics since 1950: 1950 RPP defeated. Religion becomes “political football” in 1950s 1960-1 Military government. 1969 First Islamist party formed 1971-3 Military government. 1973-80 Political violence involving Islamists, leftists etc. 1980-3 Military government. 1983-93 Özal government; less state intervention in society 1996 Erbakan becomes prime minister 1997 Military intervention. 2002 AKP elected to government
Partial retreat from Secularism: • Military chaplains (1941) • Adhan in Arabic (1950) • Foreign exchange for Hajj (1948) • Religion in primary schools (1949) • Religious radio programs aired (1950) • School for imams and preachers • Faculties of Theology established • Turkey a founding member of OIC (1969) • Politicians begin to mention God publicly
Sufis: • Tariqas are officially banned but their activities and networks continue and function more or less openly • Some saints’ tombs, e.g. that of Mevlana Rumi have been reopened as “museums” • Naqshbandis in particular are close to politics.
Tomb of Shihab al-Din (Şehabeddin) Sivasi (d. 1378) and mosque, Salçuk, Turkey. The plaque describes him as a scholar but he also must have been a Sufi, in view of the practices prohibited by the sign beside the door (see next frame).
The sign beside the door of Shihab al-Din’s tomb reads roughly as follows: Attention, visitors. According to Islam, your religion, at tombs and graves: 1. Votive offerings are not to be presented. 2. Animals are not to be slaughtered as sacrifices. 3. Candles are not to be lit. 4. Strips of cloth are not to be fastened. 5. Coins not to be placed. 6. One is not to bow as one enters. 7. Money is not to be thrown on or in.
The sign beside the door of Shihab al-Din’s tomb ctd 8. People are not to leave food around. 9. One should not rub one's hand and face. 10. Miraculous cures should not be expected from tombs and graves. 11. One should not circumambulate tombs or graves. 12. One should not lie down or sleep inside a tomb. These and similar things are heresies and superstitions. They have been definitively forbidden. Department of Religious Affairs.
Islamism: Ideology: Milli görüş (=National vision or National perspective) Leader: Necmettin Erbakan: industrial engineer trained in Germany Party names: National Order Party (Milli Nizam 1970-71), National Salvation Party (Milli Selamet 1972-80), Welfare Party (Refah 1987-97), Virtue Party (Fazilet, 1998-2001), Felicity Party (Saadet 2001-) • Nationalist as well as Islamist (some say “neo-Ottomanist”) • Connections with Naqshbandi tariqa • Calls for a “just order” (could not call openly for Shari‘a) • Appeals to educated people and business people in provinces, (as opposed to secular elite of Istanbul, etc.) • Has polled 10-20 percent of votes • Participated in government in 1974, prime minister in coalition, 1996-7; forced out by military.
Post-Islamism Justice and Development Party (AKP) Split from Milli görüş movement c 2001 Elected to power 2002 Muslim ethos; supports secularism defined as “the state’s impartiality toward every form of religious belief and philosophical conviction”
Alevis • c 15-25% of Turkish population • Shi‘i, strong veneration of Ali and Imams,esoteric teachings passed on orally, followers of Hajji Bektash • Traditionally persecuted by Sunnis, practice taqiya • Supported Atatürk, whom they saw as a “mahdi”. • Kemalism ended the persecution but pressured Alevis toward assimilation to (implicitly Sunni) nationalism and discouraged their religion • Popular prejudice continued • Alevis became secularised with leftwing orientation in politics in 1970s • Communal revival and reform from mid-1980s in the face of Sunni revival and continuing pressure