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NOTICE

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NOTICE

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  1. NOTICE THIS PRESENTATION MAY BE COPIED AND DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT COST. IT MAY ALSO BE MODIFED IF THE CREDITS AND THIS NOTICE ARE NOT REMOVED. You are encouraged to send copies of derived articles and upgraded slides to bruce@discussIT.org. The most recent version of this work may be found at www.discussIT.org.

  2. e-Guideways Bruce A. McHenry bmchenry@alum.mit.edu

  3. Acknowledgements Presentation created by: Bruce A. McHenry e-Guideway Association (bmchenry@alum.mit.edu)Modified by Palle R Jensen Particular thanks to:RUF International (Palle Jensen)MegaRail Transportation Systems (Kirston Henderson) Special thanks to Professor Jerry SchneiderUniversity of Washington for hisInnovative Transportation Technologies web site

  4. Transportation is Vital to US Consumes 19% of average household expenditures ($7,759) 4,000,000,000,000 passenger-miles in four-wheel vehicles 200,000,000 four-wheel vehicles Consumes 14 million barrels/day out of 20 million total Air carriers only 500,000,000,000 passenger miles (1/8 of car miles) 177 billion gallons gasoline / year Bureau of Transportation Statistics

  5. Current Political Sense “Freedom Car” High Speed Trains Maglev Trains Light Rail

  6. “Freedom Car” • Losses incurred during catalytic cracking of hydrocarbons are not offset by efficiency of H2 fuel cells • Electrolysis, distribution, storage and conversion of H2 incurs heavy energy losses relative to using the electricity directly for propulsion • Solves none of the “presenting complaints” about congestion, safety, etc. • On-board storage is highly problematic (-423ºF liquid; 90,000psi gas; at best 100 kilos / gallon equivalent using metal hydride)

  7. High Speed Trains • < 300 miles: slower than 100MPH guideways door-to-door and far more costly on passenger-mile basis • > 300 miles: slower and more expensive than planes Maglev trains have similar characteristics, only much, much more expensive.

  8. Light Rail • Typically serves only 1% of commuters where used • Average subsidy per passenger equivalent to purchasing a car • Relatively slow • Requires large amount of public space • Most dangerous form of transportation

  9. “Freedom Car” High Speed Trains Maglev Trains Light Rail

  10. Winning Platforms e-Cars with AHS technology Hybrid Electric Cars e-Guideways

  11. Most Probable Evolution TCAS for cars “Platooning” (cars in a pod) e-Guideways

  12. What is a Dualmode Vehicle? A dualmode vehicle travels under manual control on the street network for some portion of its trip, and operates under automatic control on an exclusive guideway for some other portion. Images courtesy of RUF International

  13. Why would e-guideways be added to the infrastructure of the 21st Century?

  14. Remember… fear exists for a reason

  15. 3000 killed100 billion damage

  16. What if a 9/11 happened every month or every year? October November December January February March April May June January February March July August Sept. April May June October November December July August Sept. March February January October November December April May June

  17. 3000 killed every month100 billion damage every year Photo: Philip Greenspun 42,000 deaths/yr.1,600,000 injuries/yr100 billion/year property damage

  18. 1. Safety Guideways support high speeds with great safety… Images courtesy of RUF International & AVT Train.com

  19. … because they are separated from crossing vehicles and animals.

  20. Footnote: Braking on the guideway could be swift and certain. Images courtesy of RUF International

  21. 2. 50-80+% Aero Drag Reduction Only the first and last cars need experience large aerodynamic forces Image courtesy of RUF International

  22. PATH Tested Aero Drag in Platoons with Chevy Lumina APV

  23. Car-trains exhibit Ultra-Low Cd

  24. Aerodynamic Drag > 80% Crossover point is at 70kph for Chevy Lumina APV

  25. 2. Large reductions in rolling resistance also because:1) if the steel guideway is very smooth… 2) then the wheels can be hard with low rolling resistance e.g. multiple polyethylene wheels that will roll smoothly over expansion joints

  26. 2. Large reductions in rolling resistance also Another 3x reduction in rolling resistance possible due to:3) appropriatesize, low average weight (1000 lbs.) > 6x less rolling resistance Photos courtesy of Global Electric Motorcars, LLC

  27. Note: Traction is Independent of Road Conditions In RUF design, rail wheels are smooth wheels. Traction friction can be adjusted by changing pressure against top rail Image courtesy of RUF International

  28. Maglev? Magnetic levitation might someday offer much more reduction in rolling resistance.However, aerodynamic drag would still dominate running efficiency. Image courtesy of AVT-Train.com

  29. 2. MUCH MORE ENERGY EFFICIENT 2-4x aerodynamic & 6x rolling friction reductions => Running efficiency improves 2-4X Image courtesy of RUF International

  30. 1:3 Running Efficiency Gain

  31. 3. MOSTLY ELECTRIC PROPULSION Allows cars to be lighter and muchless expensive to run (energy + maintenance) Electrified guideway Image courtesy of RUF International

  32. 3. MOSTLY ELECTRIC PROPULSION Solves range problem of all-electric cars. Makes e-cars practical…within urban areasor between them. Image courtesy of RUF International

  33. What is the Propulsion Efficiency? New natural gas power plants (55%) Transmission efficiency (85%) Electric motor efficiency (90%) Overall: 41% Compare with 15% for typical internal combustion engine (ICE) or 28% for hybrid-electric

  34. 2:3 Propulsion Efficiency Gain

  35. Overall Efficiency Gain 1:4.5

  36. New CAFÉ? Conventionally Sized Van: 25 MPG at 65 MPH At 100 MPH, it would get 11 MPG. (25 / (100/65)2) Efficiency decreases approximately as square of speed when aerodynamic drag predominates

  37. New CAFÉ? Conventionally Sized e-Van: 11 * 4.5 = 50 MPG at 100 MPH Prius (mid-size) Car: 45 MPG at 80 MPH 28 MPG at 100 MPH 28 * 4.5 = 127 MPG at 100 MPH

  38. Cost to Power a Mid-Size Car? MEDIAN SIZE CAR:15HP at 55MPH ON e-GUIDEWAY:→ 100MPH with 3x better running efficiency… Generation & transmission cost of 1 kWh: $0.10 What is the electricity cost to travel 100 miles in an hour? Running efficiency gain = 3Efficiency of electric motor = 90% Loss due to higher speed = (100/55)3 = 6.0 Power needed at 100MPH: 15*6/3*0.9 = 33 HP or 25 kW $2.50

  39. Savings over 100 Miles in Mid-Size Car? e-Guideway at 100 MPH $2.50 or 2.5 cents per mile vs. Hybrid-Electric at 70 MPH 50 MPG: 2 gallons at $2.00 = $4.00 4.0 cents per mile SAVES 1.5 cents per mile Note: $.015 * 3,000,000,000,000 = $45 billion

  40. 4. LAND USE Guideways carry about 10x as many passengers/hr as a highway lane. Image courtesy of RUF International

  41. 4. MUCH LOWER LAND USE …and they occupy about 1/10th the footprint of a single lane Image courtesy of MegaRail Transportation Systems Image courtesy of RUF International

  42. 1:100? … but MUCH LOWER LAND USE

  43. 5. USER COMFORT & CONVENIENCE Any time, door-to-door Images courtesy of RUF International

  44. 5. USER COMFORT & CONVENIENCE Congestion free Image courtesy of RUF International

  45. 5. USER COMFORT & CONVENIENCE Images courtesy of RUF International

  46. 5. USER COMFORT & CONVENIENCE Images courtesy of RUF International Can work, sleep or play

  47. 5. USER COMFORT & CONVENIENCE Images courtesy of RUF International

  48. 5. USER COMFORT & CONVENIENCE Faster than air travel up to 500 miles.> Door-to-door DC to NYC areas: <3 hours> Cross the nation in three nights: About $100 one-way for small family in a “sleeper-van”

  49. 6. DRAMATICALLY REDUCED MAINTENANCE FOR THE ALL-ELECTRIC MODELS • Vastly simpler electric motor • No ignition system • No valves • No piston rings • No motor vibration • Regenerative braking • No muffler • No clutch • No high speed salt spray

  50. 7. INEXPENSIVE SHORT-TERM CAR RENTAL • … because of low maintenance, virtually zero accidents, and reduced pick-up and point-of-return constraints. • Encourages people to lease cars (besides their commute vehicles) according to need, e.g.: • Family outing SUV • Cargo van • Sleeper cars • etc.