Understanding Obesity & Childhood Nutrition Panel Perspectives: Schools February 17, 2008 Virginia A Stallings, MD Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
The most pressing challenge to nutritional health in this first decade of the 21st century is obesity.
School-Related Health Policy • 2004 Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act • Wellness Policy Required by 2006 • Nutrition education goals • Physical activity goals • Nutrition guidelines • Other school-based activities
Nutrition Guidelines • All foods available on campus with objective of promoting health and reducing obesity • FY 2005 Congress directed CDC to initiate an IOM study to review the evidence and make recommendations
Committee’s Task • Review evidence and make nutrition standard recommendations: • for availability of sale, content and consumption of foods and beverages at schools; • with attention to foods and beverages in competition with federally reimbursable meals and snacks.
Process and Approach • Ten Guiding Principles • Tier 1: All students all day “F, V, WG, D”Tier 2: High school students after school • Includes recommendations for: • Non-nutritive sweeteners • Caffeine • Water availability • Sport drinks • Food for student reward and punishment • Fund raising
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Department of Agriculture www.healthierus.gov/dietaryguidelines Calories Weight management Physical activity Food groups to encourageFatsCarbohydratesSodium, potassium Alcoholic beverages Food safety
Dietary Intake Data Are children’s diets meeting theDietary Guidelines for Americans? • <2% meet the Food Guide Pyramid recommendations • 16% did not meet any of the Pyramid food group recommendations • Too few fruits, vegetables, whole grains; not enough fiber- or calcium-rich foods • Too much fat, sodium, added sugar
Key Messages Federal school nutrition programs are the main source of nutrition provided at school. However, if opportunities for students to select competitive foods and beverages arise, they should be used to encourage greater consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and nonfat or low-fat dairy foods. The IOM recommendations ensure that competitive foods and beverages are consistent with the DGA and will promote healthful life-long eating patterns.
Recommended Standards for Competitive Foods • Two Tiers • Tier 1 are “foods to be encouraged” based on the Dietary Guidelines for American (F, V, WG, LFD) • Tier 2 foods are consistent with the Dietary Guidelines but offer more choice and flexibility for high school students
Examples of Tier 1 Foods • Fresh, pureed, or dried fruits (apples, pears, applesauce, raisins) • Fresh vegetables (baby carrots, celery sticks) • Whole grain low sugar cereals • Low-fat fruit flavored yogurt • Low-fat flavored milk
Examples of Tier 2 Foods • Low salt baked potato chips crackers, or pretzels • Graham crackers with no more than 35% calories from sugar • Low-fat, low sugar ice cream products
Foods that do not Meet the Standards • Potato chips and pretzels with too much fat or sodium • Cheese crackers with too much fat or sodium • Breakfast for granola bars with too much fat or sugar • Ice cream products with too much fat • Cake, cupcakes, cookies with too much sugar or salt • Fortified sports drinks or fortified water • Gum, licorice, candy • Fruit smoothies with too much added sugar • Regular colas or sodas with sugar or caffeine
Key Elements for Success Awareness and understanding of the standards by schools, parents, students, and federal, state, and local as well as other private stakeholders.
Impact • CDC Implementation Guide for Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools – under development • West Virginia schools – new legislation to implement IOM recommended standards • House bill (January, 2008) to require food served in schools to meet federal nutrition guidelines and IOM recommended standards
Web Information Nutrition Standards in Schools report http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11899 National Academics Press http://www.nap.edu