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Management Information Systems By Effy Oz & Andy Jones

Management Information Systems By Effy Oz & Andy Jones

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Management Information Systems By Effy Oz & Andy Jones

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  1. Management Information SystemsByEffy Oz & Andy Jones Chapter 1: Business Information Systems: An Overview www.cengage.co.uk/oz

  2. Objectives • Explain why information systems are essential to business • Describe how computers process data into useful information for problem solving and decision making • Identify the functions of different types of information systems in business

  3. Objectives (continued) • Describe careers in information technology • Identify major ethical and societal concerns created by widespread use of information technology

  4. The Purpose of Information Systems • Businesses use information systems • To make sound decisions • To solve problems • Problem is any undesirable situation • Decision arises when more than one solution to problem exists

  5. The Purpose of Information Systems (continued) • Problem solving and decision making require information • Keys to success in business are • Gathering correct information • Storing information • Using information

  6. Data, Information, and Information Systems • “Data”, “information” and “system” are commonly used terms • Important to understand their similarities and differences

  7. Data vs. Information • Data: a given or fact • Can be number, statement, or picture • Information: facts or conclusions that have meaning within context • Composed of data that is manipulated

  8. Data Manipulation • Data is manipulated to make useful information • Survey is common method of collecting data • Raw data is hard to read • Information is more useful to business than data

  9. Generating Information • A process is manipulation of data • Process usually produces information • Process may produce more data • A piece of information in one context may be considered data in another context

  10. Generating Information (continued)

  11. Information in Context • Not all information is useful • Useful information is • Relevant • Complete • Accurate

  12. Information in Context (continued) • Useful information is • Current • Obtained economically (in business)

  13. Information in Context (continued)

  14. What Is a System? • System: array of components that work together to achieve goal or goals • System • Accepts input • Processes input • Produces output

  15. What is a system? (continued) • System may have multiple goals • System may contain subsystems • Subsystems have sub-goals that meet main goal • Subsystems transfer output to other subsystems

  16. What is a system? (continued) • Closed system: has no connections with other systems • Open system: interfaces and interacts with other systems • Often a subsystem of a bigger system • Information system: processes data and produces information

  17. Information and Managers • Systems thinking: thinking of an organization in terms of subsystems • Database: collection of electronic records • Information systems automate exchange among subsystems • Information map: network of information systems • Information technology: technologies that facilitate construction and maintenance of information systems

  18. The Benefits of Human-Computer Synergy • Humans are relatively slow and make mistakes • Computers cannot make decisions • Synergy: combining resources to produce greater output

  19. The Benefits of Human-Computer Synergy (Continued)

  20. Information Systems in Organisations • Computer-based Information system: system with computer at centre • Certain trends have made information systems important in business • Organisations lag behind if they do not use information systems

  21. Components of information systems

  22. The Four Stages of Processing • Input: collect and introduce data to system • Transaction: a business event, usually entered as input • Data processing: perform calculations on input • Output: what is produced by the information system • Storage: vast amounts of data stored on (for example) optical discs

  23. Computer Equipment for Information Systems • Input devices: receive input • Computer: process data • Output: displays information • Storage devices: store data • Network devices: transfer data

  24. Computer Equipment for Information Systems (continued)

  25. From Recording Transactions to Providing Expertise: Types of Information Systems • Many types of information systems • Capabilities of applications have been combined and merged • Management Information System: supports planning, control, and making decisions

  26. Transaction Processing Systems • Most widely used type of system • Records data collected at point where organisation interacts with other parties • Encompasses cash registers, ATMs and purchase order systems

  27. Supply Chain Management Systems • Supply chain: sequence of activities involved in producing and delivering products • Activities include marketing, purchasing raw materials, manufacturing, shipping, billing, collection, and after-sale services • Also known as enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems

  28. Customer Relationship Management Systems • Customer relationship management: managing relations with customers • Used in combination with telephones to provide customer service • Often linked to Web applications that track online transactions

  29. Business Intelligence Systems • Business Intelligence: gather data to help organisation compete • Often contains statistical models • Access large pools of data • Data warehouse: large database that usually store transactional records

  30. Decision Support and Expert Systems • Decision support system: supports decision-making • Relies on models to produce tables • Extrapolates data to predict outcomes • Expert system: supports knowledge-intensive decision-making • Uses artificial intelligence

  31. Geographic Information Systems • Geographic information system: ties data to physical locations • Represents data on a map in different formats • May reflect demographic information in addition to geographic • May use information from GPS satellites

  32. Geographic Information Systems (continued)

  33. Information Systems in Business Functions • Functional business area: services within a company that support main business • Includes accounting, finance, marketing, and human resources • Part of a larger enterprise system

  34. Accounting • Information systems help record transactions • Produce periodic statements • Create required reports for legal compliance • Create supplemental reports for managers

  35. Finance • Finance systems facilitate financial planning and business transactions • Tasks include organising budgets, managing cash flow, analysing investments, and making decisions

  36. Marketing • Pinpoint likely customers and promote products • Marketing information systems analyse demand for products in regions and demographic groups • Identify trends in demand for products/services • Web provides opportunity to collect marketing data

  37. Human Resources • Human resource management systems aid record-keeping • Must keep accurate records • Aids recruiting, selection, placement, and reward analysis • Performance evaluation systems provide grading utilities

  38. Web Empowered Enterprises • E-commerce: Buying and selling goods and services through Internet • Internet is a vast network of computers connected globally • Web has a profound impact on information systems

  39. Careers in Information Systems • Information technology professionals are increasingly in demand • Networking, system analyst, software engineering, and database administrator jobs are increasing in demand

  40. Systems Analyst • System analyst: designs and updates information systems • Involves analysing system requirements, documenting development efforts, and providing specifications for programmers • Requires communication and presentation skills

  41. Database Administrator • Database administrator: responsible for databases • Develops and acquires database applications • Must protect privacy of customers and employees • Responsible for securing the database

  42. Data Administrator • Data administrator: responsible for strategic use of databases • Ensuring senior management are able to make full use of internal data • Ensuring appropriate external data is collected and filtered • Enabling the use of this internal and external data to gain competitive advantage

  43. Network Administrator • Network administrator: acquires, implements, manages, maintains, troubleshoots networks • Implements security • Firewalls • Access codes

  44. Webmaster • Webmaster: creates and maintains Web site • Designs and codes the page • Demand for Webmasters grows as more businesses use Web

  45. Chief Security Officer • Chief security officer: supervises security of information system • Position exists due to growing threat to information security • Reports to chief information officer

  46. Chief Information Officer and Chief Technology Officer • Chief information officer: responsible for all aspects of information system • Highest ranking IS officer • Responsible for IS as a strategic resource • Chief technology officer: has similar duties as CIO • High level corporate officer • In charge of all IT needs of the organisation • Sometimes the two positions are incorporated into one

  47. Chief Information Officer and Chief Technology Officer (continued)

  48. Summary • Computer-based information systems pervade almost every aspect of our lives • A system is a set of components that work together to achieve a common goal • Subsystem: a system performs a limited task that produces an end result, which must be combined with other products from other systems to reach an ultimate goal • Data processing has four stages

  49. Summary (continued) • Any IS that helps in management is a management information system (MIS) • Many different types of MIS • Enterprise application systems (SCM or ERP) tie together different functional areas of a business • ISs are used in accounting, finance, marketing, and human resources

  50. Summary (continued) • The job prospects for IT professionals are bright • IT has created societal concerns