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# A skydiver jumps off a plane at 3000m.

Q0. A skydiver jumps off a plane at 3000m. He falls with his belly “facing down” to 1000m altitude before opening up his parachute. Which is the qualitatively correct graph for velocity versus height?. Dynamics of a car/airplane /skytrain and fuel economy. Work.

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## A skydiver jumps off a plane at 3000m.

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1. Q0 A skydiver jumps off a plane at 3000m. He falls with his belly “facing down” to 1000maltitude before opening up his parachute. Which is the qualitatively correct graph for velocity versus height?

2. Dynamics of a car/airplane/skytrain and fuel economy

3. Work • W = F d, where F is a force under consideration and d is the distance traveled. • +/- signs: If the force is along the direction of motion, W is positive. If opposite, W is negative. Net work is the sum of work done by different forces or the work done by the net force.

4. Work - Energy Principle • The net work on an object is zero if the net force is zero. • A non-zero net work means non-zero net force. This is known as work-energy principle.

5. Q1 When a person is pushing a crate on a rough surfacewith constant speed, 1) the work done by the person must be equal to the work done by friction forces. 2) the work done by the person must be greater to overcome frictions. 3) the work done by the person is less than the work done by friction forces.

6. Work-energy relation in transportation W(net)=W(engine) – |W| (friction, Drag)= DK W(engine) =|W| (friction, Drag)+ DK A) During cruising at constant speed, DK=0. B) Acceleration costs extra energy!!

7. Energy in Transportation All transportation systems need energy to • Accelerate up to certain speed; • Make up for losses due to (rolling) friction, air drag, etc. • Air planes need additional energy to climb to an altitude of ~10 km.

8. Example At 80-90 km/hr, the rolling friction and air drag of a car were estimated to be the same ( m= 1500 kg and mr is given as 0.02 ). Friction+ drag= 600 N. Cars usually have their lowest energy consumption at~ 80 to 90 km/h on an open road and consume 6 – 10 L of gasoline per 100 km depending on size and engine.

9. Fuel economy of a car on a high way To maintain a constant speed, W (engine)=|W| (frict, drag). |W| = F d = 600 N x 100 km = 6 x 107 J. Gasoline yields 34.6 MJ/per Litre and car engines’ efficiency is only ~ 20%. This leads to a realistic answer of 8.5L/100km.

10. Local versus highway Gasoline consumption is larger in cities than on an open highway although speeds (or air drag forces) are lower. Why?

11. Extra energy for acceleration How much extra energy is consumed during acceleration? To accelerate from 0 – 50 km/h in 5 s, the acceleration is a = 2.8 m/s2. The corresponding distance d = 35 m. The rolling resistance and air drag combine to 400 N (following example 5.8). W = F d = 400 N x 35 m = 14000 J. DK = ½ m v2= 150 000J (m = 1500 kg) A car needs at least 10 times more energy for acceleration.

12. Q1 In a previous lecture, we estimate that the drag force acting on a typical car is about 300N at speed 90km/hr. What is the drag force on this car when the speed is 135 km/hr? • 400N; • 450N; • 675N; • 900N.

13. Hybrid Cars Hybrid cars more energy efficient because • Efficiency of combustion engines depends on rpm;most efficient at relative high speeds ~ 90 km/h. • Electric motor are very efficient at all speeds.

14. Power • Power is defined as the rate at which work is done. Average power is the amount of work done in a time interval Dt or the amount of energy transferred: SI unit: 1 watt = 1W = 1J/s • Mechanical power:

15. Fuel Economy of Airplanes A Boing 747 has a maximum range of 13,450 km and a maximum fuel capacity of 216,840 L. We can calculate the fuel economy from this: 16L/km or 1600 L per 100 km. The number of passengers is ~500, so each passenger uses 3.2L per 100 km when the plane is full. This is similar to the fuel economy of a car!

16. Energy needed to climb up to an altitude of 10.5km The mass of the plane is 390 000 kg at take-off. V= m g h = 4 x 10^10 J Kinetic energy at 915 km/h (254 m/s). K = ½ m v^2 = 1.26 x 10^10 J The energy efficiency of the jet engines is ~25% (estimated). Energy in jet fuel: 37.6 MJ/L. So we need 1400 L/0.25 = 5600L of jet fuel to accelerate to 915 km/h and go up to 10500 m.

17. Energy for cruising • The rest of the fuel (~210,000L) is used to maintain “terminal” speed against air drag. • Let’s estimate the drag force: A max. range of 13450km and 210,000 L are used to counter air drag. So F = 147 kN. (Engines have max thrust of 4 x 282 kN). It is less than the air drag on the ground!! Flying at a high altitude reduces the air drag because of a lower air density !! That’s why planes fly relatively high although going higher results in a lower upward lifting force.

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