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Difficult Passages In Hebrews

Difficult Passages In Hebrews

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Difficult Passages In Hebrews

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  1. Difficult Passages In Hebrews

  2. What are we to make of the writer’s use of the OT? He seems to quote various OT texts in a very haphazard manner with little respect for the original context

  3. Jesus Is Better Than The Angels(Heb. 1:4-2:9) • He is God’s Son(Heb. 1:5) • Psalm 2:7 • 2 Samuel 7:14 • They owe Him worship (Heb. 1:6) • Deuteronomy 32:43

  4. Jesus Is Better Than The Angels(Heb. 1:4-2:9) • He is a King and the Creator (Heb. 1:7-14) • Psalm 104:4 • Psalm 45:6-7 • Psalm 102:25-27 • Psalm 110:1

  5. Jesus Is Better Than The Angels(Heb. 1:4-2:9) • [Parenthetical Exhortation (Heb. 2:1-4)] • The “world to come” has not been put in subjection to angels(Heb. 2:5-9) • Psalm 8:4-6

  6. Perfected Through Suffering(Heb. 2:10-18) • It was “fitting”(Heb. 2:10) • The Sanctifier and the sanctified are all of one (Heb. 2:11) • Psalm 22:22 • Isaiah 8:17 • Isaiah 8:18

  7. Quotations Don’t Match • Heb. 1:6 & Dt. 32:43 • Heb. 1:7 & Psa. 104:4 • Heb. 2:6-8 & Psa. 8:4-6 • Heb. 10:5-7 & Psa. 40:6-8

  8. Quotations Don’t Fit Context • Psalm 2: The Coronation of the Lord’s Anointed (Heb. 1:5) • Dt. 32: The Song of Moses (Heb. 1:6) • Psa. 45: The Wedding of the Lord’s Anointed (Heb. 1:8-9) • Psa. 102: The Lament of the Afflicted (Heb. 1:10-12)

  9. Quotations Don’t Fit Context • Psa. 110: The Lord’s Anointed King And Priest (Heb. 1:13) • Psa. 8: The Song of the Astronomer (Heb. 2:6-8a) • Psa. 22: The Lament of the Forsaken (Heb. 2:12) • Isa. 8:17-18: The words of Isaiah (Heb. 2:13)

  10. The Writer’s Use Of The OT • Paraphrases and allusions • Quotations from LXX • More than one possible translation • Applies passages about Jehovah to Jesus • Applies passages “typologically” • Quotes one passage that is directly Messianic • Borrows language that applies in principle

  11. Hebrews & The Septuagint Hebrews 1:6 • MT: “Rejoice, O nations, with his people, for he will avenge the blood of his servants; he will take vengeance on his enemies and make atonement for his land and people. (Dt. 32:43) • LXX: “Rejoice, O nations, with his people, and let all the angels worship him, for he will avenge the blood of his servants (Dt. 32:43)

  12. Hebrews & The Septuagint Hebrews 1:7 • LXX: “Who maketh his angels winds, And his ministers a flaming fire.” (Psa. 103:4) • MT: “Who maketh winds his messengers; His ministers a flaming fire.” (Psa. 104:4)

  13. Hebrews & The Septuagint Hebrews 10:5-7 • LXX: “Sacrifice and offering thou wouldest not, But a body didst thou prepare for me; Whole burnt offering and sacrifice for sin thou didst not desire….” (Psa. 39:7-9) • MT: “Sacrifice and offering thou hast no delight in; Mine ears hast thou opened: Burnt offering and sin offering hast thou not required….” (Psa. 40:6-8)

  14. Hebrews & The Septuagint Hebrews 10:37-38 • LXX: “…If the vision delay, wait for it, For it shall surely come, and shall not tarry. If it shrink back, my soul hath not pleasure in it: But the righteous one shall live by my faith.” (Hab. 2:3-4) • MT: “…Though (the vision) tarry, wait for it; because it will surely come, it will not delay. Behold, his soul is puffed up, it is not upright in him: but the just shall live by his faith.” (Hab. 2:3-4)

  15. Hebrews & The Septuagint Hebrews 11:21 • LXX: “…and Israel worshipped upon the top of his staff.” (Gen. 47:31) • MT: “And Israel bowed himself upon the bed’s head.” (Gen. 47:31)

  16. Psalm 2:7a • LXX: “Thou madest him a little lower than the angels….” • MT: “For thou hast made him but little lower than God”

  17. Jesus Is Also “Jehovah” • He is “God” (Jn. 1:1-3) • He is one with the Father (Jn. 10:30) • He should receive the same honor (Jn. 5:22-23) • “Jehovah” is applied to more than one person (cf. Gen. 19:24; Zech. 2:8-9, 10-11, 12 ASV)

  18. More Than One Person Called “Jehovah” • 24 Then Jehovah rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire fromJehovah out of heaven; (Gen. 19:24, ASV) • 8 For thus saith Jehovah of hosts: After glory hath he sent me unto the nations which plundered you; for he that toucheth you toucheth the apple of his eye. 9 For, behold, I will shake my hand over them, and they shall be a spoil to those that served them; and ye shall know that Jehovah of hosts hath sent me. (Zech. 2:8-9, ASV)

  19. More Than One Person Called “Jehovah” • 10 Sing and rejoice, O daughter of Zion; for, lo, I come, and I will dwell in the midst of thee, saith Jehovah. 11 And many nations shall join themselves to Jehovah in that day, and shall be my people; and I will dwell in the midst of thee, and thou shalt know that Jehovah of hosts has sent me unto thee. (Zech. 2:10-11, ASV) • 12 And I will strengthen them in Jehovah; and they shall walk up and down in his name, saith Jehovah. (Zech. 10:12, ASV)

  20. Psalm 2: A Messianic Psalm

  21. Psalm 2: A Messianic Psalm • Vs. 2: “The kings of the earth set themselves, And the rulers take counsel together, Against the Lord and Against His Anointed….” • Vs. 8: “Ask of Me, and I will give You the nations for Your inheritance And the ends of the earth for Your possession. You shall break them with a rod of iron; You shall dash them in pieces like a potter’s vessel.”

  22. 2 Sam. 7: A Messianic Passage • Vs. 13: “He shall build a house for My name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever.” • Vs. 16: “And your house and your kingdom shall be established forever before you. Your throne shall be established forever.”

  23. The Greater “David” • Jer. 30:9:But they shall serve the Lord their God, And David their king, Whom I will raise up for them. • Hos. 3:5:Afterward the children of Israel shall return and seek the Lord their God and David their king. They shall fear the Lord and His goodness in the latter days.

  24. R.V. G. Tasker “The kings and priests of the Old Testament are to him [the writer of Hebrews, ksk] types of something better and greater to come; for in none of them was realized all that kingship and priesthood might mean. Christ is their antitype, for in Him kingship and priesthood find their fullest and truest expression.” (The Old Testament In The New Testament, 117)

  25. The Wedding Of The King(Psa. 45) • Introduction (45:1) • The Eulogy of the Groom (45:2-9) • Advice to the Bride (45:10-12) • The Entrance of the Bride (45:13-15) • The Results of the Marriage (45:16-17)

  26. Psa. 45: A Messianic Psalm • This king is called “God” (45:6) • His reign is eternal (45:6; cf. Dan. 7:14; Lk. 1:33) • His rule is righteous (45:6; cf. Psa. 89:14) • His authority is universal (45:16-17)

  27. Psa. 8: A Messianic Psalm 3When I consider Your heavens, the work of Your fingers, The moon and the stars, which You have ordained, 4What is man that You are mindful of him, And the son of man that You visit him? 5For You have made him a little lower than the angels, And You have crowned him with glory and honor. 6You have made him to have dominion over the works of Your hands; You have put all things under his feet….

  28. Consequences Of The Fall • Women bear children in pain (Gen. 3:16) • Wives subject to husbands (Gen. 3:16) • Ground cursed (Gen. 3:17-18) • Men earn bread by sweat (Gen. 3:19) • All die physically (Gen. 3:19) • Banished from tree of life (Gen. 3:22-24) • Animals fear man (Gen. 9:2)

  29. Psa. 22: A Messianic Psalm • 22:1: “My God, My God why have You forsaken Me?….” (Mt. 27:46) • 22:8: “He trusted in the Lord, let Him rescue Him; Let Him deliver Him, since He delights in Him!” (Mt. 27:43) • 22:18: “They divide My garments among them, And for my clothing they cast lots.” (Jn. 19:23-24)

  30. Psalm 22 & Calvary

  31. Psalm 22 & Calvary

  32. Isaiah & The Messiah

  33. Problems With Psalm 40 • Confession of sin (40:12) • Imprecations on enemies (40:14-15) • Significant differences between MT & LXX

  34. Psalm 40:6-8 • LXX: “Sacrifice and offering thou wouldest not, But a body didst thou prepare for me; Whole burnt offering and sacrifice for sin thou didst not desire….” (Psa. 39:7-9) • MT: “Sacrifice and offering thou hast no delight in; Mine ears hast thou opened: Burnt offering and sin offering hast thou not required….” (Psa. 40:6-8)

  35. Proposed Solutions • LXX reading is a copyist error • MT reading is a copyist error • LXX offers an interpretative translation

  36. Parallel Expressions(Heb. 10:5-7)

  37. Psa. 110: A Messianic Psalm • Written about someone other than David • 110:1: “The Lord [Jehovah] said to my [David’s] Lord [???]….” (Mt. 22:41-46) • David could not have fulfilled • 110:1: David did not ascend (Acts 2:32-34) • 110:4: Davidic kings were not priests “according to the order of Melchizedek”

  38. Borrowed Language • Heb. 13:5: “I will never leave you nor forsake you.” (cf. Dt. 31:6) • Heb. 13:6: “The Lord is my helper; I will not fear. What can man do to me?” (cf. Psa. 118:6) • Heb. 2:13a: “I will put My trust in Him” (Isa. 8:17) • Heb. 2:13b: “Here am I and the children whom God has given Me.” (cf. Isa. 8:18)

  39. Writer’s View Of Inspiration • Words of God • “He” or “Him” = God, the Father (Heb. 1:5, 6, 7, 8, 13; 4:3, 4, 7; 5:5, 6; 6:14; 7:21; 8:5, 8; 10:30; 12:26; 13:5) • Words of Christ • “He” = Christ (Heb. 2:11-13; 10:5) • Words of the Spirit (Heb. 3:7; 9:8; 10:15 )

  40. What is the “rest” that remainsfor the people of God (Heb. 4:9)?

  41. God rested Not Enter Rest Sabbath Psa. 95:11 C M J D Gen. 2:2 Ex. 20:8 Rest Remaining Canaan Heb. 4:9Rev. 7:16-17; 14:13 Josh. 1:15; 22:4

  42. Could Jesus have yielded totemptation to sin (Heb. 2:17-18; 4:14-16)?

  43. What does the writer mean when he says that “it is impossible…to renew them again to repentance” (Heb. 6:4-8)?

  44. Elementary Principles(Heb. 6:1-3) • Repentance from dead works • Faith toward God • Doctrine of baptisms • Laying on of hands • Resurrection of the dead • Eternal judgment

  45. Hebrews 6:4-6 • Once enlightened (vs. 4; cf. Heb. 10:32) • Tasted the heavenly gift (vs. 4; cf. 1 Pet. 2:3; Heb. 2:9) • Partakers of Holy Spirit (vs. 4; cf. Heb. 3:1; Gal. 4:6) • Tasted the good word of God (vs. 5) The People The Action • Fall away (vs. 6) • Impossible to renew them again to repentance (vs. 6) • They crucify again the Son of God (vs. 6) • Thorns and briars rejected and burned (vs. 8) The Results Larry Hafley

  46. Hebrews 6:4-6 4For itisimpossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted the heavenly gift, and have become partakers of the Holy Spirit, 5and have tasted the good word of God and the powers of the age to come, 6if they fall away, to renew them again to repentance, since they crucify again for themselves the Son of God, and put Him to an open shame. [NKJV]

  47. Hebrews 6:4-6 4 For in the case of those who have once been enlightened and have tasted of the heavenly gift and have been made partakers of the Holy Spirit, 5 and have tasted the good word of God and the powers of the age to come, 6 and thenhave fallen away, it is impossible to renew them again to repentance, since they again crucify to themselves the Son of God and put Him to open shame. [NASB]

  48. Neil Lightfoot On Heb. 6:6 “All along the author has expressed himself (in the Greek original) by the use of participles – have been enlightened…have tasted…have become partakers…have tasted. Since all these are translated with past tenses, it is maintained that the next participle in the series (parapesontas) should also be translated in the past. And this is what the British and American revisions of 1881-1901 did, translating it ‘and then fell away.’ On the other hand, it is unquestionably permissible to translate parapesontas as a conditional participle, the if idea being included in the participle.” (Jesus Christ Today, 125)

  49. James Macknight On Heb. 6:6 “The verbs…, being aorists, are rightly rendered by our translators in the past time, Who were enlightened, have tasted, were made partakers. Wherefore…,being an aorist, ought likewise to have been translated in the past time, have fallen away. Nevertheless our translators, following Beza, who without any authority from ancient MSS hath inserted in his version the word Si, If, have rendered this clause, If they fall away; that this text might not appear to contradict the doctrine of the perseverance of the saints. But as no translator should take upon him to add to, or alter the scriptures, for the sake of any favourite doctrine, I have translated…in the past time, have fallen away, according to the true import of the word as standing in connexion with the other aorists in the preceding verses.” (Macknight on the Epistles, p. 532)

  50. An Agricultural Illustration(Heb. 6:7-8) The earth which drinks in the rainthat often comes upon it Bears herbs useful for those by whom it is cultivated, receives blessing from God Bears thornsand briars, it is rejected and near to being cursed, whose end is to be burned