Male and Female Reproductive Systems Sexual Education Lesson #2
BELLRINGER You have 2 minutes to list as many parts of the male reproductive anatomy that you can think of…(Ex: penis)
Ever wonder how the universe could allow the existence of someone as annoying as your bratty little brother or sister?
The answer lies in reproduction. If people — like your parents (ew!) — didn't reproduce, families would die out and the human race would cease to exist.
All living things reproduce… • REPRODUCTION • the process by which organisms make more organisms like themselves
REPRODUCTION • Reproduction is something that sets living things apart from nonliving matter. But even though the reproductive system is essential to keeping a species alive, unlike other body systems it's not essential to keeping an individual alive.
Sex Cells • Aka “gametes” • The male gamete • sperm • Female gamete • Egg or ovum
Male and Female Sex Cells These cells meet in the female's reproductive system to create a new individual. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction.
Genes • Humans, like other organisms, pass certain characteristics of themselves to the next generation through their genes • the special carriers of human traits. • come from the father's sperm and the mother's egg • The genes parents pass along to their children are what make children similar to others in their family, but they are also what make each child unique.
Male Reproductive System • Male reproductive organs • Aka: genitals (pronounced: jen-ih-tulz) • located both inside and outside the pelvis • The male genitals include: • the testicles • the duct system (epididymis and vas deferens) • the accessory glands (seminal vesicles and prostate gland) • penis
Testicles • There are two testicles (pronounced: tes-tih-kulz) • Aka: testes (pronounced: tes-teez) • They produce and store millions of tiny sperm cells. • oval-shaped • grow to be about 2 inches (5 centimeters) in length and 1 inch (3 centimeters) in diameter • part of the endocrine system • produce hormones, including testosterone (pronounced: tes-tos-tuh-rone).
Epididymis/Vas Deferens • Epididymis • Part of the duct system • Set of coiled tubes that connects to the vas deferens • Vas Deferens • Muscular tube • Passes alongside testicles • Transports semen
Scrotum • Pouch-like structure • Hangs outside the pelvis and houses the epididymis and the testicles • Regulates temperature of testicles
Accessory Glands • Provide fluid that lubricate the duct system and nourish sperm • Seminal vesicles • Urethra • Channel that carries semen to the outside of the body through the penis • Channel through which urine passes and leaves the bladder as it exits the body • Prostate gland • Produces some parts of semen • Surrounds ejaculatory ducts at the base of the urethra
Penis • Two parts • Shaft • Glans • Made up of spongy tissue that can expand and contract
Circumcision • Removal of foreskin covering the glans • Usually performed during the first days of a baby boy’s life • Doesn’t alter the ability for the penis to function • Not medically necessary • Religious beliefs • Hygiene • cultural/social reasons
Sperm • Very small (1/600th of an inch) • Have a head (contains genetic material) and short tail (used to push themselves into the epididymis) • Mixed with seminal fluid
Female Reproductive System Review • Unlike the males, the female reproductive system is located entirely in the pelvis • It’s job is to: • Produce eggs • Have sexual intercourse • Protect and nourish the fertilized egg until it is fully developed • Give birth
Vulva • External part of the female reproductive organs • Vulva means covering • Covers the opening to the vagina
External Female Anatomy • Mons pubis • Fleshy area located just above the top of the vaginal opening • Labia • Two pairs of skin flaps • Surround vaginal opening • Clitoris • Small sensory organ • Urethra • Carries urine from bladder to exit the body
Internal Reproductive Organs • Vagina • Muscular hallow tube • Extends from uterus • 3-5 inches long • Can expand and contract to be wider and narrower • Functions • Sexual intercourse • Pathway baby takes out of a woman’s body during childbirth • Route for menstrual blood to leave uterus during a woman’s period • Uterus • Fallopian tube • Ovaries
Internal Reproductive Organs • Uterus • Aka. Womb • Connects to the vagina at the cervix • Where a baby matures (not the stomach) • Contains some of the strongest muscles in the female body (to accommodate a growing fetus) • Contractions during child birth occur in the uterus and they help to push the baby out during labor • Cervix • Strong thick walls • Normally very small but expands to allow a baby to pass
Internal Reproductive Organs • Fallopian tube • Located in the upper corners of the uterus • Connect the uterus to the ovaries • Ovaries • Two oval-shaped organs • Located in the upper right and left of the uterus • Produce, store, and release eggs into the fallopian tubes (ovulation) • Produce estrogen and progesterone (female sex hormones)
Menstruation • Once a month a female ovulates and a tiny egg is sent into one of the fallopian tubes • If the egg is not fertilized, it dries up and leaves the body about 2 weeks later • This is called menstruation • Blood and tissues from the inner lining of the uterus are the menstrual flow • Lasts 3-5 days • 1st period is called “menarche”
What is PMS? • Discomfort is common in the days leading up to a girl’s period • 7 days before the period begins • Physical and emotional symptoms • Acne • Bloating • Fatigue • Backaches • Sore breasts • Headaches • Constipation • Diarrhea • Food cravings • Depression • Irritability • Difficulty concentrating/handling stress
Cramps • Called “prostaglandins” • Chemicals in the body that cause the muscles in the uterus to contract • Causes dull or sharp pains
Monthly Cycle • It takes about 2 years from a girls 1st period for her menstrual cycle to be regular • Average for women is 28 days