A reporter wants to write a story describing the occurrence of mental disorders in the US. She needs a title that captures the findings of a national survey completed several years ago. Which of the following would be the best title? Rate of mental disorders considered low. Majority of American’s have experienced a mental illness during their lives Mental disorders are not uncommon experience, but they affect all of us Rate of mental disorders overestimated in the past.
The line dividing normal from abnormal is . . . • always clear • not a very important issue • based on the exact form of content of behavior • often one of degree, and not always clear
A group of symptoms that appear together and are assumed to represent a specific type of disorder is referred to as a. . . sign disease syndrome psychosis
What is the best description of abnormal pathology? • study of unconscious influences on mental disorders • a deviant personality trait • application of psychological science to the study of mental disorders • analysis of the childhood roots of pathology.
Specific laboratory tests to confirm the presence of psychopathology . . • are used by psychiatrists but not by psychologists • are used by psychologists but not by psychiatrists • are used to test for the presence of some viral infection or brain lesion to confirm a diagnosis • do not at present exist.
A problem with defining abnormal behavior in terms of personal distress is that this definition . . . does not specify how unusual behavior must be before it is considered abnormal. • considers behavior to be abnormal because the person does not have insight regarding the disorder. • does not take into account unusual circumstances contributing to abnormality. • does not distinguish between what is harmful and what is not.
According to Jerome Wakefield, mental disorders are best defined in terms of • tissue damage revealed by medical tests. • statistical rarity. • harmful dysfunction. • one distinguishing symptom.
What problem in defining abnormal behavior is evident in the case of Kevin Warner described in the text? • Some statistically rare forms of behavior are desirable. • Some mental disorders have symptoms that are not harmful. • Some people do not perceive their abnormal behavior as personally stressful. • A behavior is not dysfunctional unless it is statistically unusual.
Which organization publishes DSM-IV-TR? • American Psychological Association • American Psychiatric Association • National Institute of Mental Health • World Health Organization
Olivia grew up in a society where mourners pull out their hair, go into an emotional frenzy, and speak in tongues. On a visit to the U.S., she did these things in public when she heard that a relative had died. According to DSM-IV-TR, her behavior would be considered . . . • not psychopathological, because it is part of her culture. • psychopathological, because of her personal distress. • psychopathological, because it disrupted her social functioning. • not psychopathological, because it caused no disruption in social functioning.
Most forms of abnormal behavior are thought to be caused by. . . • learning • genetics • a single cause. • multiple factors.
A researcher described her approach to understanding mental disorders as biopsychosocial. When you ask her to explain what she means, what is she likely to say? • The search for etiologies is best accomplished by viewing the evidence through the lens provided by one of the major paradigms. • The integration of various factors provides the most fruitful avenue for discovering the cause of most mental disorders. • Biological abnormalities give rise to psychological disturbances that have social consequences. • Biological, psychological, and social factors are just as likely to be the cause of these disorders.
The discovery of the etiology of which disorder was an important scientific advance for the biological paradigm? • Alzheimer's disease • Dissociative identity disorder • General paresis. • Bipolar mood disorder
What was Freud's premise regarding psychological conflicts? • Psychological conflicts were unconsciously "converted" into physical symptoms. • Psychological conflicts were rooted in childhood experience and were unconsciously repressed. • Psychological conflicts were a result of consciously attempting to repress memories. • Psychological conflicts were a result of ego conflicts.
According to Sigmund Freud, what are the three parts of the mind?. • conscious, preconscious, unconscious • oral, anal, phallic • id, ego, superego • reality, pleasure, spiritual
Who of the following were the most prominent contributors to early learning theory? • Freud and Charcot • Freud and Skinner • Wundt and Freud • Pavlov and Skinner
What is the primary concept of classical conditioning?. . . • learning occurs through association • a stimulus is essential for a response • behavior is learned • positive reinforcement is necessary for learning
What is the primary concept in operant conditioning? • negative reinforcement is the same as punishment. • a conditioned stimulus is neutral • conditioned response leads to extinction • behavior is a function of its consequences
Which paradigm views human nature as basically good, attributes abnormal behavior to frustrations of society, and uses nondirective therapy to treat abnormal behavior?. • biomedical • cognitive behavioral • humanistic • psychoanalytic
Holism is the idea that . . . • human nature is basically good. > + = • the whole is more than the sum of its parts. • behavior is determined. • humans have free will.
Most mental health professionals would describe themselves as being. . . • cognitive-behaviorists. • behaviorists • humanists • eclectic
Which of the following best describes the evidence for how many people receive psychological help who need it? • Most people will receive help. • Most people will not receive help. • Only people with the most common disturbances will receive help. • Only people with severe disturbance will receive help.
At a retreat for therapists, the group leader decides to use a few warm-up exercises to help everyone get to know each other. She says, "I want all of the therapists who view their role as active and directive in the back of the room.“ When she looks at the back of the room she finds that most of the people back there follow which treatment approaches? • biological • humanistic • psychodynamic • cognitive behavioral
A therapist tells a patient that he is "not being genuine, not being himself.“ The therapist encourages the patient to make life choices based on his true feelings. What is the therapist's most likely theoretical framework? • biological • psychodynamic • behavioral • humanistic
When biological treatments are used for various mental disorders without knowing the specific cause of the problem, such treatments focus on . . . • discovering the cause. • prevention • symptom alleviation. • establishing the correct diagnosis.
You are reading a case study of a patient who has been prescribed the following: Haldol, Clozaril, and Thorazine. You recognize these drugs as belonging to the category called . . . • antianxiety • antimanic • antipsychotic • antidepressant
Ted wants to learn about the effects of the drug Prozac. Under what heading would he find the drug listed? • anti-depressant medications • anti-manic medications • anti-psychotic medications • anti-anxiety medications
Systematic desensitization is based on the principles of . . . • imitation learning. • classical conditioning. • cathartic learning. • operant conditioning.
Which of the following most accurately summarizes the results of outcome research on different forms of psychotherapy? • Various forms of psychotherapy are so radically different that it is not possible to offer definitive conclusions concerning their effectiveness. • Despite decades of research there is little evidence that psychotherapy is effective. • Psychotherapy is effective although different forms of treatment do not vary much in effectiveness. • Psychoanalytic treatment tends to be superior to other treatments because it is the only one that seeks to uncover underlying causes of disorders.
Aaron Beck's cognitive therapy was developed specifically as a treatment for. . . • schizophrenia • depression • anxiety • impulsivity