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ACTIVE KIDS, ACTIVE MINDS PowerPoint Presentation
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ACTIVE KIDS, ACTIVE MINDS

ACTIVE KIDS, ACTIVE MINDS

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ACTIVE KIDS, ACTIVE MINDS

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  1. Professor Doune Macdonald School of Human Movement Studies, UQ with Rebecca Abbott, Clive Dixon, Sue Dixon, Peter Hay, Louise McCuaig & Sue Monsen ACTIVE KIDS, ACTIVE MINDS A Research Story funded by Department of Education and Training EQ Research Forum Tuesday 22 June 2010

  2. ... And the story unfolds • Chapter 1: Setting the scene • Chapter 2: AKAM 1 (2008) • Chapter 3: AKAM 2 (2009) • Chapter 4: Denouement Smart Moves moving forward

  3. Setting the scene . . . A government commitment • Government concern over children’s body weight & levels of physical activity (2000+) • Obesity Summit (cross gov’t) • Eat Well Be Active – Healthy Kids for Life (cross gov’t) • Healthy Kids Qld – statewide BMI, PA & nutrition (Q Health) • Ministerial Review – Future Development of School Sport and Physical Activity • Smart Choices – regulate foods sold via canteens, fundraising… • Smart Moves – following international best practice; embed daily PA into the school curriculum

  4. AKAM 1: Evaluation of the effectiveness of increased school-based physical activity for enhanced learning • Children who are physically fit tend to have faster cognitive processing & perform better academically • Allocation of additional time to physical activity/ physical education as part of the curriculum does not have negative consequences for children’s academic performance • Allocation of additional time to physicalactivity/ physical education as part of the school day may have positive academic benefits for children in terms of enhancing the learning environment • Systematic exercise programs of an aerobic/vigorous nature may actually enhance specific component of mental processing known to be important for meeting challenges encountered in & outside the classroom

  5. “Hot off the press” Sinclair (1818), p. 250 “The code of health and longevity” “The body of man is evidently calculated for activity and exertion …. By labour, (in which general term exercise is included), man, 1. Preserves his health; 2. Augments his strength; 3. Improves his mental facilities; 4. Procures the means of his subsistence; and, 5. Obtains all the other conveniences of life.”

  6. “Hot off the press ... Take 2” • “Regular physical activity and physical fitness are associated with higher levels of academic performance” • “Physical activity is beneficial to general cognitive functioning” Trost & van der Mars (2010, p. 64) • “There is substantial evidence that physical activity can help improve academic achievement (including grades and standardized test scores... (and) have an impact on cognitive skills and attitudes and academic behavior.... These include enhanced concentration and attention as well as improved classroom behavior”. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (Executive Summary, 2010, p. 4)

  7. AKAM 1 (2008) Methodology • Intervention with a year 5 cohort in a SE Qld primary school • 2 control classes; 2 intervention classes • Pre- and post-testing included: • daily step count • accelerometry (intermittent) • cognitive performance (planning, attention, processing) • self-description questionnaire. • Intervention classes over two terms: • 60 minutes of MVPA daily (exceeding 30 minutes MVPA required by Smart Moves) with assistance of additional teacher (PE, Smart Moves, AKAM, active curriculum, dance in music, school sport...) • Data set also included: school academic records; school behaviour records; AKAM teacher diary; student, staff & principal interviews; field observations

  8. AKAM 1 Results • AKAM classes maintained daily step counts & MVPA across terms • Intervention classes did not meet daily PA targets • Cognitive functioning: no significant differences • Self-description: how students perceived themselves remained stable • School academic records: no significant differences • School behaviour records: lesser increase in AKAM classes (boys) • Teachers reported: they & students keen; student increased movement confidence/enjoyment; students more settled in classroom & ready to learn • Student reported: really enjoyed Smart Moves / AKAM; wanted more input into program; wanted variety & consideration of weather

  9. AKAM 1: Reflections on 2008 • Cohort size & post-intervention data attrition →may have militated against statistically significant results • needed weekly measures of MVPA to ↑/ monitor adherence • weather militated against intervention & post-testing data collection • school as helpful as possible while being complex & dynamic research setting • AKAM (2) – in depth case study of Smart Moves implementation

  10. AKAM 2 (2009): Aims AKAM–2 aimed to monitor, assist and evaluate the implementation of Smart Moves, or more specifically to: a. document the school’s approach to the implementation of Smart Moves b. ascertain barriers & enablers in the implementation of Smart Moves c. monitor & assist the school’s uptake of components one to five of the Smart Moves policy d. determine the perceptions & views of teachers, students and community partners on the efficacy, viability & impact or otherwise of Smart Moves e. ascertain any demonstrable outcomes of Smart Moves within the school f. examine student performance on the school’s standardised literacy & numeracy tests pre- & post-AKAM Phase 1 intervention. g. develop an accessible Smart Moves resource for Queensland teachers.

  11. Methodology (i) Interview, survey and document analysis: • retrospective accounts of Smart Moves implementation in 2008 across year levels (Principal, teachers) • ongoing interviews with teachers, students & community agencies who may/not be engaging with the school’s Smart Moves program • teacher & student surveys. (ii) Behavioural measures: • accelerometers to determine if students are meeting the MVPA for 30 minutes targets • school behaviour incident reports • school-based literacy & numeracy assessments. (iii) Professional development: • use of accelerometry, teacher interviews & teacher surveys to inform & develop teacher’s Smart Moves programs • develop & document teacher learning communities to support the implementation of Smart Moves. via funded facilitator based in the school.

  12. Staff interviews • Aimed for SM to contribute to building school community • Valued the positive impacts of PA for students but SM competed with literacy & numeracy time & resources “… if we’re going to be honest, SM is the one thing in your curriculum… that gets squeezed out”. • SM coordinator pivotal role in program promotion, resource provision, feedback etc “When the teachers are given the programs, the enthusiasm from them is lifted & they get out there & they’re doing the programs”. • Principal & HOC support essential in culture, timetabling & resources

  13. Approx. half the time in a Smart Moves session met MVPA threshold • ↓ PA intensity as children age

  14. Smart Moves sessions late morning had lowest MVPA

  15. Student focus groups • Smart Moves was enjoyable & worthwhile (fit, active, healthy) “ I’d like to change that we go out a bit more with it instead of going out just once or twice a week.” “I think we’re learning how to get along better, how to have turns.” • Loved it when teachers were enthusiastic & joined in • Enjoyed having input into & choice of activities • Understood the differences between Smart Moves & PE

  16. AKAM classes had ↓ of behaviour incidents Year 5 into Year 6

  17. Despite time spent on Smart Moves students academic results were not adversely affected

  18. A reminder of the Smart Moves policy • Required time for physical activity -primary schools must allocate 30 minutes per day of PA of at least moderate intensity as part of the school curriculum - secondary schools are required to provide at least two hours of PA at moderate intensity in curriculum time for lower secondary school students each week - special schools must allocate curriculum time for PA that is the same or as close as possible to the required time allocation above • Improved access to resources for physical activity • Increased capacity to deliver physical activity • Provide professional development in physical activity • Build community partnerships to enhance physical activity • Accountability for physical activity

  19. Building a professional learning community … with the aim of building & sustaining capacity Activities included: • Professional development day for year level Smart Moves leaders • Support for the Smart Moves Coordinator to undertake leadership activities (e.g. access materials) Outcomes: • Little progress made • Minimal time for Smart Moves Coordinator to spend on his additional role • PE teacher’s work sat “outside” Smart Moves • Competing teacher priorities

  20. Building community partnerships … with the aim of broadening capacity to fulfill Smart Moves components Activities included: • preliminary identification of possible partners in Smart Moves leaders’ professional development session • UQ Facilitator approached possible community partners to assist with providing PA in the school Outcomes: • community providers who were contacted were not willing to assist for free • school staff had little capacity to pursue partnerships

  21. What have we learned about Smart Moves? • Smart Moves was a well-received policy by teachers & students in our case study school • schools have the capacity to embed 30 minutes/day of PA as part of the school curriculum • MVPA levels are hard to achieve & sustain across the PA period • Smart Moves needs to be valued & supported by senior staff (including support for SM Coordinator/leaders, PE Specialist, equipment, timetabling, PD) • staff have limited time or enthusiasm to build/sustain a Smart Moves learning community • those within and outside schools find it hard to develop PA partnerships (time, communication, expectations) (see also Marks et al., 2010) • systemic accountability for Smart Moves is essential

  22. Recommendations from AKAM 1 and 2 findings • That EQ continue to support the implementation of Smart Moves at a policy level & through the distribution of easily accessible resources. • That EQ provide professional development opportunities for school Smart Moves Coordinators/leaders to foster & support colleagues’ capacities for Smart Moves implementation & sustainability. • That school principals introduce strategies that support the role of their school’s Smart Moves Coordinator. • That the role of the primary PE specialist be recognised as a potential driver in the implementation of Smart Moves, & consideration be given as to their leadership capacity. • That EQ, in conjunction with other government agencies, inform school communities about Smart Moves, such that they may make approaches to schools to build school-community capacity.

  23. Recommendations from AKAM 1 and 2 findings • That EQ continue to support the implementation of Smart Moves at a policy level & through the distribution of easily accessible resources. • That EQ provide professional development opportunities for school Smart Moves Coordinators/leaders to foster & support colleagues’ capacities for Smart Moves implementation & sustainability. • That school principals introduce strategies that support the role of their school’s Smart Moves Coordinator. • That the role of the primary PE specialist be recognised as a potential driver in the implementation of Smart Moves, & consideration be given as to their leadership capacity. • That EQ, in conjunction with other government agencies, inform school communities about Smart Moves, such that they may make approaches to schools to build school-community capacity.

  24. Smart Moves Community Capacity Building Flowchart

  25. Michael Fullan (2008) “The Six Secrets of Change” p. 57 “Individuals and groups are high in capacity if they possess and continue to develop knowledge and skills, if they attract and use resources (time, ideas, expertise, money) wisely, and if they are committed to putting in the energy to get important things done collectively and continuously (ever learning).” Jan Nespor (1997) “Tangled up in School” p. xiii “Instead of treating the school as a container filled with teacher cultures, student subgroups, classroom instruction, and administrative micropolitics …. (a school is) a knot in a web of practices that stretch into complex systems beginning and ending outside the school.” Working with schools

  26. Acknowledgements • Brassall State Primary School community • Curriculum Branch, Education Queensland • Strategic Research, Education Queensland • Lyn Hughes & Deb Noon, UQ