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Parallel and Distributed Programming Models and Languages

Parallel and Distributed Programming Models and Languages

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Parallel and Distributed Programming Models and Languages

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  1. Parallel and Distributed ProgrammingModels and Languages 15-740/18-740 Computer Architecture In-Class Discussion Dong Zhou Kun Li Mike Ralph

  2. Why distributed computations? • Buzzword: Big Data • Take sorting as an example • Amount of data that can be sorted in 60 seconds • One computer can read ~60 MB/sec from one disk • 2012 world record • Flat Datacenter Storage by Ed Nightingale et.al • 1470 GB • 256 heterogeneous nodes, 1033 disks • Google indexes 100 billion+ web pages

  3. Solution: use many nodes • Grid computing • Hundreds of supercomputers connected by high speed net • Cluster computing • Thousands or tens of thousands of PCs connected by high speed LANS • 1000 nodes potentially give 1000x speedup

  4. Distributed computations are difficult to program • Sending data to/from nodes • Coordinating among nodes • Recovering from node failure • Optimizing for locality • Debugging • …

  5. MapReduce • A programming model for large-scale computations • Process large amounts of input, produce output • No side-effects or persistent state • MapReduce is implemented as a runtime library • Automatic parallelization • Load balancing • Locality optimization • Handling of machine failures

  6. MapReduce design • Input data is partitioned into M splits • Map: extract information on each split • Each map produces R partitions • Shuffle and sort • Bring M partitions to the same reducer • Reduce: aggregate, summarize, filter or transform • Output is in R result files

  7. More specifically • Programmer specifies two methods • map(k, v) → <k', v'>* • reduce(k', <v'>*) → <k'', v''>* • All v' with same k' are reduced together • Usually also specify: • partition(k', total partitions) → partition for k’ • often a simple hash of the key

  8. Runtime

  9. MapReduce is widely applicable • Distributed grep • Distributed clustering • Web link graph reversal • Detecting approx. duplicate web pages • …

  10. Dryad • Similar goals as MapReduce • Focus on throughput, not latency • Automatic management of scheduling, distribution, fault tolerance • Computations expressed as a graph • Vertices are computations • Edges are communication channels • Each vertex has several input and output edges

  11. Why using a dataflow graph? • Many programs can be represented as a distributed dataflow graph • The programmer may not have to know this • ``SQL-like’’ queries: LINQ • Dryad will run them for you

  12. V V V Runtime • Vertices (V) run arbitrary app code • Vertices exchange data through • files, TCP pipes etc. • Vertices communicate with JM to report • status • Daemon process (D) • executes vertices • Job Manager (JM) consults name server(NS) • to discover available machines. • JM maintains job graph and schedules vertices

  13. Job = Directed Acyclic Graph Outputs Processing vertices Channels (file, pipe, shared memory) Inputs

  14. Advantages of DAG over MapReduce • Big jobs more efficient with Dryad • MapReduce: big jobs runs > 1 MR stages • Reducers of each stage write to replicated storage • Output of reduce: 2 network copies, 3 disks • Dryad: each job is represented with a DAG • Intermediate vertices write to local file • …

  15. Pig Latin • High-level procedural abstraction of MapReduce • Contains SQL-like primitives • Example: good_urls = FILTER urls BY pagerank > 0.2; groups = GROUP good_urls BY category; big_groups = FILTER groups BY COUNT(good_urls)>106; Output = FOREACH big_groups GENERATE category, AVG(good_urls.pagerank); • Plus user-defined functions (UDFs)

  16. Value • Reduces development time • Procedural vs. declarative • Overhead/performance costs worthwhile? C/C++ Assembly Pig Latin MapReduce

  17. Green-Marl • High-level graph analysis language/compiler • Uses basic data types and graph primitives • Built-in graph function • BFS, RBFS, DFS • Uses domain specific optimizations • Both non-architecture and architecture specific • Compiler translates Green-Marl to other high-level language (ex. C++)

  18. Tradeoffs • Achieve speedup over hand-tuned parallel equivalents • Tested only on single workstation • Only works with graph representations • Difficulty representing certain data sets and computations • Domain specific vs. general purpose languages • Future work for more architectures, user-defined data structures

  19. Questions and Discussion

  20. Example: count word frequencies in web page • Input is files with one doc per record • Map parses document into words • key = document URL • value = document contents • Output of map "to", "1" "be", "1" "or", "1" "not", "1" "to", "1" "be", "1" "doc1", "to be or not to be"

  21. Example: count word frequencies in web page • Reduce: computes sum for a key • Output of reduce saved key = "be" values = "1", "1" key = "not" values = "1" key = "or" values = "1" key = "to" values = "1", "1" "2" "1" "2" "2" "to", "2" "be", "2" "or", "1" "not", "1"

  22. Example: Pseudo-code Map(String input_key, String input_value): //input_key: document name //input_value: document contents for each word w in input_values: EmitIntermediate(w, "1"); Reduce(String key, Iterator intermediate_values): //key: a word, same for input and output //intermediate_values: a list of counts int result = 0; for each v in inermediate_values: result += ParseInt(v); Emit(AsString(result))