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Chapter 12: Prevention of Illness in Early Childhood Education Environments Through Infection Control PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapter 12: Prevention of Illness in Early Childhood Education Environments Through Infection Control

Chapter 12: Prevention of Illness in Early Childhood Education Environments Through Infection Control

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Chapter 12: Prevention of Illness in Early Childhood Education Environments Through Infection Control

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  1. Chapter 12: Prevention of Illness in Early Childhood Education Environments Through Infection Control © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

  2. Health Policies Needed • Early childhood education environments that have detailed routines to clean and disinfect can significantly cut the number of illnesses reported because the cycle of germ transmission gets interrupted • 11 percent of all children in the United States have no health insurance © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

  3. Health Policies for Infection Control • Prevention • Protection • Promoting good health • Implications for teachers © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

  4. Health Policies for Infection Control (continued) • Health policies should include: • mechanisms of disease spread • immunizations • sanitation • environmental quality control • teacher’s methods and practices for minimum risk and maximum health protection © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

  5. Mechanisms of Infectious Disease Spread • Via germs and bacteria—organisms that cause diseases • Specific child care practices that contribute to the spread of infectious disease (Table 12.1) © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

  6. Mechanisms of Infectious Disease Spread (continued) Four mechanisms of disease spread • respiratory tract • fecal-oral • direct contact • blood © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

  7. Mechanisms of Infectious Disease Spread (continued) • Respiratory tract transmission • Most common • Tiny droplets from eyes, mouth, and nose are in air when child sneezes, coughs, drools, or talks • Transmitted through air when another person breathes it in • They can multiply and cause illness • Hand washing is major deterrent to spread © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

  8. Mechanisms of Infectious Disease Spread (continued) • Fecal-oral transmission • Germs from one person’s feces find their way into another person’s mouth, are swallowed, and get into the digestive system • Most common way is when hands are not washed after toileting before eating, or before preparing food • Water tables are another method • Hand washing is major deterrent to spread © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

  9. Mechanisms of Infectious Disease Spread (continued) • Direct contact transmission • Occurs when one person has contact with secretions from an infected person • Secretions can be left on doorknobs, toys, and other objects • Also occurs with parasites, such as lice  infestation occurs with contact • Good hygiene including hand washing and sanitizing are deterrents to spread © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

  10. Mechanisms of Infectious Disease Spread (continued) • Blood contact transmission • Occurs when infected blood of one person enters bloodstream of another person • Spread occurs when infected person has cut, scraped skin, or bloody nose and person interacting with infected person has open sore, chapped hands, and the like © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

  11. Mechanisms of Infectious Disease Spread (continued) • Blood contact transmission (continued) • Can also occur when mucous membranes come into contact with infected blood • Disposable gloves should be worn when in the presence of blood • Child-biting becomes a serious issue © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

  12. Mechanisms of Infectious Disease Spread (continued) • Five fabulous forestallers of disease transmission • Keep immunization records up to date • Use proper hand washing • Use universal sanitation procedures for diapering • Sanitize and disinfect bathrooms and food preparation areas • Check out daily quick health check © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

  13. Reality Check—The Issue of Head Lice in Early Childhood Education • Direct contact • Historical connotation • More children in care, happens more frequently © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

  14. Reality Check—The Issue of Head Lice in Early Childhood Education (continued) • No-Nits Policy • Is it realistic? • Is the expertise for it present everywhere it is used? • Larger number of children who build up immunity to regular treatment • can be a frustrating experience if everything appears to have been done © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

  15. Reality Check—The Issue of Head Lice in Early Childhood Education (continued) • Consider policy carefully • Review as guideline for exclusion • Develop a policy that everyone can live with © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

  16. Immunizations for Disease Prevention • Keep with recommended immunization schedule for all children • Make sure all present in child care are immunized properly • If a child has not followed the normal immunization schedule, make sure the child gets all immunizations needed • Review records periodically to assess that everyone is in compliance © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

  17. Universal Sanitary Practicesfor the Early Childhood Education Environment • Hand washing • Outline procedure Table 12-4 • Diapering • Outline procedure Table 12-6 • Toileting • Outline procedure Table 12-7 © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

  18. Universal Sanitary Practicesfor the Early Childhood Education Environment (continued) • Cleaning, sanitizing, and disinfecting • Define the difference • What constitutes contamination? © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

  19. Environmental Quality Control for Disease Prevention • Water table guidelines • Outline procedure Table 12-9 • How often should they be cleaned? • Play dough guidelines • Outline procedure Table 12-10 • Air quality guidelines • What are guidelines? Table 12-11 • Contamination guidelines • Outline procedure Table 12-12 © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

  20. Reality Check—At Risk for Preventable Diseases • Recent studies show that large numbers of children are at risk for these preventable diseases because they have not been immunized • There have been an increase in reported cases of • measles • mumps • whooping cough © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

  21. Reality Check—At Risk for Preventable Diseases (continued) • The first reason children may not be immunized is that some children may have less access to immunization coverage than others • Children with private insurance were more likely to be up-to-date (UTD) than those with public insurance or no insurance © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

  22. Reality Check—At Risk for Preventable Diseases (continued) • The second more controversial reason may be because of the alleged relationship between • increase in autism and vaccinations given for measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, which has caused concern among parents in both the United States and Great Britain • Thimerosol—a mercury derivative • has not been used since 2003 in vaccinations, except for flu shots © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

  23. Reality Check—At Risk for Preventable Diseases (continued) • Vaccines rarely cause life-threatening or life-changing reactions • A child is at far greater risk if not immunized properly • Teachers require that immunization schedules be UTD before children go to school • Track and remind to keep UTD © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

  24. Reality Check—At Risk for Preventable Diseases (continued) • Some children may be exempt • Allergy to eggs; religious or personal reasons of parents • This can cause concern to those children too young to be immunized and those that are not immunized due to the reasons above • Children who do not have immunizations should be excluded when an infectious disease that other children have been immunized for is present © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

  25. Implications for Teachers • Education • For Families • Role-Modeling • Hand washing especially important • Cultural Competence • Immunization • Provide resources for connection to source for immunization © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

  26. Implications for Teachers (continued) • Supervision • Prevent spread • Require and monitor immunizations • Report some illnesses • Exclude some children • Be prepared to help an ill child © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning