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The Mongol Empire. By Marina Daniels and Allen Caldwell. Genghis Khan died and his successors continued to expand his empire. Mongols began conquering territory from China to Poland. They created the largest unified land empire in history. Khanates.
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The Mongol Empire By Marina Daniels and Allen Caldwell
Genghis Khan died and his successors continued to expand his empire. • Mongols began conquering territory from China to Poland. • They created the largest unified land empire in history.
Khanates • Mongols decided to divide their huge empire into four regions called khanates. • Khanate of the Great Khan (Mongolia and China • Khanate of Chagatai (Central Asia) • The Ilkhanate (Persia) • Khanate of the Golden Horde (Russia) • A descendent of Genghis ruled each khanate.
Mongols as Rulers • As they invaded, the populations of some cities Mongols went to were wiped out. They ended up destroying ancient irrigation systems also. • Mongols were known to be ferocious in war, but tolerant in peace. • The Mongols had religious tolerance • Some of the Mongol rulers even adopted aspects of the culture of the people they ruled. • Ex: The Ilkhanas and Golden Horde became Muslims because of who they were ruling. • They had many different religions throughout the whole empire.
Mongol Peace • The Mongols imposed stability and law and order across most of Eurasia. This was known as PaxMongolica (Mongol peace) • They guaranteed safe passage for trade caravans, travelers, and missionaries from one empire to another. • Trade with Asia and Europe had never been easier and more active. • Mongols were the lords of city-based civilizations across Asia and China.
Kublai Khan • Kublai Khan was the grandson of Genghis Khan. • He decided to focus on extending the power and range of his own khanate and began trying to conquer all of China like his grandfather had previously done.
A new Dynasty • Kublai Khan created the Yuan dynasty and united China for the first time in more than 300 years. • The control imposed by the Mongols across all of Asia opened China to greater foreign contacts and trade. • Kublai decided to abandon the Mongolian steppes for China. • He tried to extend his rule to Japan but both times he tried the Japanese turned back the Mongol fleets and a typhoon ended the attempts.
Foreign Trade and The Mongols and the Chinese • Mongols lived apart from Chinese and followed different laws. • They wanted to keep Chinese out of high government offices, but let some Chinese serve on a local level. • Kublai Khan increased trade largely due to the Mongol Peace • Travel routes were more safe now for trade and travel. • Kublai encouraged trade by inviting foreign merchants to visit China
Mongolian Women • Women had more power and more of an influence • Men would marry many women at one time, which was called polygamy • They had much freedom and worked either in the house or out in society
Mongol Empire declines • Trying to further expand the empire Kublai sent many expeditions to Southeast Asia but his armies suffered many humiliating defeats. • After Kublai died the Yuan dynasty was fading. • Rebellions were breaking out since the Chinese had resented the Mongols for such a long time • Chinese rebels finally overthrew the Mongols • Soon the Mongol Empire had disintegrated and only the Golden Horde stayed in power.