Introduction to Psychopharmacology Ed johnson , mac , lpc South Carolina Program Manager Southeast Addiction Technolo - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Introduction to Psychopharmacology Ed johnson , mac , lpc South Carolina Program Manager Southeast Addiction Technolo

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  1. HBCU Student Leadership Certification Academy Introduction to PsychopharmacologyEd johnson, mac, lpcSouth Carolina Program ManagerSoutheast Addiction Technology transfer center

  2. Participants will: Understand the concepts of tolerance and withdrawal. Be introduced to the various classes of drugs of abuse. Become familiar with the criteria by which addiction is defined as a chronic disease. Learning Objectives

  3. www.justice.gov/dea/pubs/abuse www.drugabuse.gov/drugpages edjohnson@msm.edu resources

  4. As human beings we do whatever we do for a reason. We do nothing “just because.” We do whatever we do for one of two reasons and two reasons only: • Increase pleasure • Decrease pain Why we do what we do

  5. Drugs enter the blood stream The “Blood Brain Barrier” Drugs act on certain parts of the brain Memory The brain

  6. The Brain: The pleasure pathway

  7. The brain: what happens where

  8. Use – Ingestion of alcohol or other drugs without the experience of any negative consequences. • Misuse – When a person experiences negative consequences from the use of alcohol or other drugs i.e. drinks too much and gets sick. • Abuse – Continued use of alcohol or other drugs in spite of negative consequences. • Dependence / Addiction – “Compulsive” use of alcohol or other drugs regardless of the consequences. The Substance use Spectrum

  9. Changes to brain chemistry Genetic Predisposition Environmental factors What flips the “switch”

  10. Alcohol Drugs Alcohol and Other Drugs Alcoholism Drug Addiction Chemical Dependency Substance Use Disorders Terminology

  11. Addiction may occur with or without the presence of physical dependence. • Physical dependence results from the body’s adaptation to a drug or medication and is defined by the presence of • Tolerance and/or • Withdrawal Terminology:Dependence versus Addiction

  12. Tolerance: the loss of or reduction in the normal response to a drug or other agent, following use or exposure over a prolonged period a higher dose is required to achieve the same effect. Terminology:Dependence versus Addiction

  13. Dependence: A state in which an organism functions normally in the presence of a drug. It is manifested as a disturbance when the drug is removed (withdrawal). Can be physiological, psychological or both Terminology:Dependence versus Addiction

  14. Withdrawal: a period during which somebody addicted to a drug or other addictive substance stops taking it, causing the person to experience painful or uncomfortable symptoms OR a person takes a similar substance in order to avoid experiencing the effects described above. Terminology:Dependence versus Addiction

  15. Psychoactive chemicals that are found to have abuse liability are placed under restricted use by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and are called “Controlled Substances”. Those drugs with the highest abuse potential are the ones that produce euphoria and have a rapid onset. Since the DEA focuses on reduction of availability of drugs, those drugs with the highest abuse liability are policed the most aggressively. Controlled Substances

  16. Controlled Substances

  17. Oral – drink or swallow Smoking Nasal – snorting, inhaling Topical – Rub on skin Injection – Intramuscularly (IM), Intravenously (IV), Subcutaneous (SC) Methods of administration

  18. Classes of drugs

  19. Narcotics (opiates/opioids)

  20. Drugs in the class

  21. Analgesic, pain relief Antitussive Antidiarrheal Methadone and Buprenorphine can be used for drug addiction treatment Medical uses

  22. Methods of Use • Oral, smoked, nasal, injected • Effects • Euphoria, Drowsiness, respiratory suppression, constricted pupils, nausea, itching skin, constipation Effects and methods of use

  23. 3-6 hours for Opium, Heroin, Morphine, Codeine, Meperidine and Hydromorphone. 12-36 hours for Methadone and Buprenorphine Variable for the rest Watery eyes, runny nose, loss of appetite, yawning, irritability, tremors, panic, chills and sweating, cramps, nausea, diarrhea Duration of effects and Withdrawal symptoms

  24. Require Medically Monitored Detoxification Death by overdose is common Significant synergistic effect Medication Assisted Treatment is the most effective. Special items of interest

  25. Name that drug

  26. Name that drug

  27. Depressants

  28. Drugs in the class

  29. And then there is Ethyl Alcohol: • Commonly know as Beer, Wine, Ale, Liquor, Distilled Spirits • Or Booze / Brew Drugs of the class

  30. GHB - none Benzodiazepenes –Anti-anxiety, sedative, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant Barbiturates – Originally anti-anxiety, anticonvulsant Ethyl Alcohol – Mild Sedative, mild sleep inducement, solvent for other drugs Medical Uses

  31. Methods of Use • Mainly Oral though some can be injected Effects • Slurred speech, disorientation, “drunken behavior” without odor of alcohol, diminished coordination, increased reflex time Effects and Methods of Use

  32. Duration of effect • Can vary from 1 to 16 hours depending on the drug and amount used. Withdrawal Symptoms • Anxiety, insomnia, tremors, delirium, convulsions Duration of effect and withdrawal symptoms

  33. Medically monitored detoxification required Major synergistic effect with opiates/opioids Benzodiazepines are seriously overprescribed Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorders Special Considerations

  34. Name that drug

  35. Name that Drug

  36. Cannabis

  37. Drugs of the class

  38. Appetite Stimulant, relieves ocular pressure associated with glaucoma Medical Uses

  39. Methods of Use • Smoke, Oral • Effects • Euphoria, relaxed inhibitions, increased appetite Effects and methods of use

  40. Duration of Effect • 2-4 Hours • Withdrawal symptoms • Irritability, insomnia, loss of appetite Duration, Withdrawal Symptoms

  41. K2 Spice • It is a synthetic cannabinoid, it provides the same euphoric effect as marijuana. • Is marketed as “incense” on the internet and in locations where it is not illegal. • Is not detectable on urine drug screens. Special items of interest

  42. Name that drug

  43. Name that drug

  44. stimulants

  45. Drugs in the class

  46. Cocaine and it’s cousins can be a topical anesthetic Amphetamines can be used for weight loss, narcolepsy, ADHD Caffeine is a mild stimulant and can be used to treat headaches Nicotine has no medical use but is a good insect repellant Medical Uses

  47. Methods of Use • Oral, smoked, nasal, injected • Effects • Increased alertness, excitation, euphoria, insomnia, loss of appetite, increased pulse and blood pressure Methods of use and effects

  48. Duration of effect • Can vary from a few minutes to 4-6 hours • Withdrawal Symptoms • Apathy, long period of sleep, depression, irritability, disorientation Duration of effect and withdrawal symptoms

  49. Name that drug

  50. Name that drug