Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. Online First Misinterpretations of intrusions, obsessive beliefs and thought control strategies in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder [Turkish]Orçun Yorulmaz, Gülbahar Baştuğ, Verda Tüzer, Erol GökaPublished Online : Apr 15, 2013
Common OCD rituals include: • repeatedly checking door locks, windows, electronic controls, and ovens. • performing tasks in set ways, like putting on one’s shoes in a fixed pattern. • repeatedly arranging and rearranging objects. • washing and cleaning repeatedly and unnecessarily. • counting the number of dots on a wall or touching objects. • hoarding newspapers, books, letters, soda cans, or other objects
Explanations for Anxiety Disorders • Learning models focus on acquiring fears via classical conditioning, then maintaining them through operant conditioning by reinforcements and punishments. • We can also learn fears by observing others or by hearing misinformation from others.
Explanations for Anxiety Disorders • Anxious people tend to think about the world in different ways from non-anxious people. • Catastrophic thinking - predicting terrible events despite low probability. • Anxiety leads us to interpret ambiguous stimuli negatively. Anxiety sensitivity – a fear of anxiety-related symptoms.
Explanations for Anxiety Disorders • Many Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, phobias, and OCD, are genetically influenced through level of neuroticism- a tendency to be irritable. • A malfunction of the caudate nucleus in people with OCD. • Genetic relationship between OCD and Tourette’s Disorder.
Mood Disorders • Over 20% of Americans experience a mood disorder. • Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is the most common, at 16%. • More prevalent in females, twice. Women are tend to ruminate more than men. • It can begin at any age, most likely to develop in 30s. • less common in elderly adults than in younger people.
Manic Episode Postpartum Depression
Mood Disorders • Depression symptoms can develop gradually or suddenly, but are often recurrent. • Average episode lasts 6 months to 1 year, most people experience 5-6 episodes. • But in as many as a fifth of cases,depression is chronic, present for decades with no relief. • Can cause extreme functional impairment across all areas. LOW SELF-CARE.
Sample MDD Symptoms • Feeling blue or irritable, pessimism, hopelessness • Sleep difficulties, insomnia, • Fatigue and loss of energy, • Weight changes, loss of apetite • Thoughts of death or suicide
Explanations for MDD • Complex interplay of biological, psychological, and social influences. • Life events such as loss of something that is valued (beloved people, financial support, or self-esteem, imigration) can set stage for depression. • Depression can create interpersonal problems, which cause lack of social support.
According to Coyne’s interpersonal model of depression, depression can trigger rejection from others, in turn contributing to further depression.a vicious cycle
Explanations for MDD • Lewinsohn’s behavioral model sees depression resulting from a low rate of positive reinforcement in the environment. • Beck’s cognitive model holds that depression is caused by negative beliefs and expectations. • Cognitive triad, negative schemas, cognitive distortions
The Shuttle Box. Using an apparatus like this, Seligman found that dogs who were first prevented from escaping the shock gave up trying to escape electric shocks even when they were free to do so. He called thisphenomenon “learned helplessness.”
Explanations for MDD • Learned helplessness - tendency to feel helpless in the face of events we can’t control. • People with depression attribute failure internally and have global, stable attributions. They tend to see their failures as general and fixed aspects of their personalities. • We develop depression depends on the difference between how we feel—our actual affect—and how we want to feel—our ideal affect.
THE ROLE OF BIOLOGY ON DEPRESSION • Genes exert a moderate influence on MDD; role of serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE,NA), and dopamine (DA).
Bipolar Disorder=Manic-depressive disorder • Have both depressive and manic episodes. • Elevated mood, lowered need for sleep, high energy, talkativeness, inflated self-esteem. • Also show highly irresponsible behavior, “pressured speech”, heightened rate of creative accomplishments. first manic episode after their early twenties. • Equally common in men and women. • people who’ve had one manic episode experience at least one more. • More than half the time, a major depressiveepisode precedes or follows a manic episode.
Bipolar Disorder • Produces serious problems in social and occupational realms. The negative effects include loss ofemployment, family conflicts, and divorce. • Very heavily (85%) genetically influenced, but stressful life events can cause episode onset. • These can be negative or positive events.