Uses of the Accusative and the Ablative Cases + Impersonal Verbs Stage 28
Uses of the Accusative • So far, we have learned two uses of the accusative case: • Accusative Direct Object mando T. FlavioDomitianoregnum populumquemeum. I bequeath to T. Flavius Domitian my kingdom and my people. • Accusative Object of a Prepositional Phrase SalviusBelimicumad aulamsine morainvitavit. Salvius invited Belimicusto the palace without delay.
Accusative of Duration of Time • A third use is the accusative of duration or extent of time. It indicates HOW LONG something went on i.e. it answers the question for how long? • multosannoshīchabito. I have lived here for many years. • duashoraslaborabant. They worked for two hours. The accusative of duration of time often appears as an accusative noun-adjective pair where the noun expresses a period of time (dies, hora, annus) and the adjective expresses an amount (multus, duo, plurimus).
Accusative of Duration of TimePractice • Hospites tres horas cenabant. The guests dined for three hours. • Agricola provinciam septem annos administrabat. Agricola governed the province for seven years. • Sex dies navigabamus. We were sailing for six days.
Uses of the Ablative Case • We have seen the ablative case used as the object of a prepositional phrase. Salvius, cum de morte regis audivisset, e castris discessit. When Salvius heard about the death of the king, he departed from the camp.
Ablative of Time When • The second use of the ablative is the ablative of time when. It indicates AT WHAT POINT IN TIME something happened i.e. it answers the question when? • nonahoraad aulamvenit. He came to the palace at the ninth hour. • decimo die, discessit. He left on the tenth day. The ablative of time when often appears as an ablative noun-adjective pair where the noun expresses a period of time (dies, hora, annus) and the adjective expresses an amount (multus, duo, plurimus).
Ablative of Time When Practice • Quarto die revenit rex. • On the 4th day, the king returned. • Secunda hora libertus Memorem excitare temptavit. • At the second hour, the freedman tried to wake up Memor. • Media nocte hostes castra nostra oppugnaverunt. • In the middle of the night, the enemy attacked our camp.
Ablative of Means/Instrument • We have also seen the ablative appear without a preposition. • miles, vulnere impeditus, tandem cessit. • The soldier, hindered by his wound, gave in at last. • iuvenis, gladio armatus, ad castra contendit. • The young man, armed with a sword, hurried to the camp. • servi, catenis vincti, in fundo laborabant. • The slaves, bound with chains, were working on the farm. • This is called an ablative of means or instrument because it either answers the question “by what means?” or “with what instrument?”
Ablative of Means or Instrument Practice • Salvius, audacia Belimici attonitus, nihil dixit. Salvius, astonished by the audacity of Belimicus, said nothing. • mercator, fustibus verberatus, in fossa exanimatus iacebat. The merchant, beaten by clubs, was lying in the ditch, unconscious. • milites, vallo defensi, barbaris diu resistebant. The soldiers, defended by the wall, resisted the barbarians for a long time. • Uxor mea anulum, gemmis ornatum, emit. My wife bought a ring decorated with gems. • Hospites, arte ancillae delectati, plauserunt. The guests, delighted by the skill of the slave girl, applauded.
Impersonal Verbs • These are verbs that are always translated with IT as the subject. • placet – it is pleasing (+ dat) • decet – it is proper • taedet – it is tiring • oportet – it is right • pluit – it is raining • advesperascit – it is getting dark