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Chapter 9: Christian Societies Emerge in Europe

Chapter 9: Christian Societies Emerge in Europe

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Chapter 9: Christian Societies Emerge in Europe

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  1. Chapter 9: Christian Societies Emerge in Europe

  2. Warm Up • Trade brought Arabs into contact with: • Most important trading town of Arabian peninsula: • Ancient building that was considered sacred: • Who started Islam and how did he get the idea? • What two religions influenced his thinking: • Year of revelation for Muhammad: • Sacred text of Islam: • What is God called in Islamic faith? • Caliph: • Caliphate:

  3. I. Byzantine Empire, 600-1200 • A. An Empire Beleaguered • Muslim Arabs took wealthy provinces from Byzantine Empire (converted them to Islam) permanently reducing power of Byzantine Empire • Great schism in 1054: Popes in the Orthodox Church disagreed with Latin princes of the Latin Church, the Latin and Orthodox church broke from each other

  4. B. Society and Urban Life • Byzantine Empire had a great gap between wealthy aristocrats and the poverty of the peasants • During the rule of Justinian I a bubonic plague broke out and created this social gap • Women: confined to the home and wore veils, some women in royalty ruled along side husbands • Economy: Byzantine emperors set prices, controlled provision of grain in capital, and monopolized trade on certain goods • Impact: Constantinople was well supplied butt cities and rural areas were left behind in terms of wealth and technology

  5. C. Cultural Achievements • Body of Civil Law (Corpus JurisCivilis) : Law Code of Justinian I of Byzantine Empire bringing back civil laws from Rome • Written in Latin, most people spoke Greek • Byzantine architects adopted the technique of dome buildings • Greatest architectural building in Constantinople was Hagia Sophia

  6. II. Early Medieval Europe, 600-1000 • A. Time of Insecurity • After the fall of Rome, Muslim Arabs and Germanic kingdoms begin to create larger empires • In Gaul (France) Clovis established the Frank empire in 400 AD • He converted to Christianity around 500 when his troops won a difficult battle • First Germanic ruler to do so • Massive public baptism of Clovis and 3,000 Franks • This conversion won Clovis the support of the Roman Catholic Church

  7. Charles Martel led his forces who defeated the Muslims at the Battle of Tours (732), which stopped the spread of Islam into Europe • Charles earned the nickname Martel, which means “hammer” for his military skills and victories • Charlemagne is Charles Martel’s grandson (how he comes to power) • Charlemagne, which means “Charles the Great” ruled from 768 – 814 • Warrior and a devout Christian, unified Europe for the first time since the fall of Rome • Expanded the Frankish kingdom – Carolingian Empire

  8. Became the most powerful Christian leader when in 800 he was crowned as Emperor of the Roman People • Restored the pope back to power after he had been run out of Rome • The pope thanked Charlemagne by making him a Roman emperor • The title implied that Charlemagne had restored the glory of the Roman Empire in Europe • Charlemagne’s rule had the full backing of the church and God • In 843 the Treaty of Verdun divided the empire among Charlemagne’s three grandsons

  9. Vikings invaded England, France, and Spain, settled in Iceland • Scandinavia’s land was not good for farming and food shortages became a problem • Normandy was given to the Vikings as a peace offering • Vikings are not interested in taking territories just taking goods and gold and leaving • Quick attacks

  10. Vikings

  11. William the Conqueror: invaded England in 1066 and establishes his empire • Defeats the English at the battle of Hastings

  12. B. Self Sufficient Economy • Fall of Rome and gap in social status led to decline in trade and de-urbanization • Self sufficient farming estates called manors and were primary centers of agriculture. Grew from the need for self sufficiency and self defense • Lord of the manor had unlimited power over the farmers (serfs) just needed to provide defense for the farmers

  13. C. Early Medieval Society in the West • Class of nobles developed into mounted knights • Relationship between landholding and obligation to provide military service to a lord is referred to as feudalism • Vassal: knights who owed military service to a lord or king • Need for military service led to military technologies: stirrup, bigger horses, armor and weapons for the knight • equipment was expensive knights needed land to support themselves

  14. Kings and nobles granted land (fief) to man in return for promise to supply military service • Kings were weak and had little ability to tax or raise an army. The land of the Church was tax free, for most people their lord was their government

  15. Warm Up • What leader is publicly baptized? Why? • Explain why the Vikings journey south and attack the mainland of Europe? • Explain how feudalism starts: • How do the kings lose power? • Define: serf and vassal: • Charles the Great AKA: • What empire does Charles the Great reign over? • What was the only real (stable) power in feudalism?

  16. III. Western Church • A. Politics and the Church • Pope looked to gain both religious and political power by crowning Charlemagne the king of the Holy Roman Empire • Western Europe was under 3 legal traditions: Germanic Feudal law, church law, Roman law • Germanic law: ordeal vs. wergild • Wergild – “money for a man” – a system using a fine was developed to avoid bloodshed after crimes such as murder • Injured party’s family was paid a set amount of money (varied by social status) • Ordeal – one way of determining guilt, based on a belief that the gods would not let an innocent person be punished • If the accused was unharmed after a physical trial, they are presumed innocent

  17. B. Monasticism • Monasteries arise in Egypt focusing on the practice of celibacy, devotion to prayer, and isolation • Functions of a monastery: centers of literacy, learning, refuges for widows and women, inns, and orphanages, they also farmed and managed their own land

  18. IV. Kievan Russia, 900-1200 • Rise of Kievan State • Russian cities that became the centers for trade: Kiev and Novgorod • 980, Vladimir I became prince of Kiev and made the state religion Orthodox Christianity • Vladimir imitated the culture of the Byzantine Empire, building churches, adopting the alphabet, and trading with Constantinople

  19. B. Society and Culture • Poor agricultural land, short growing season, and primitive farming technologies led to Kievan state relying on trade more than production • Christianity spread slowly through Russia but polytheism was still persistent until 12th century • V. Western Europe Revives, 1000-1200 • A. Role of Technology • Populations began to grow because of new technologies • Technologies: horse collar, heavy moldboard plow, and strap harness

  20. Moldboard Plow