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The Miracle of Life

The Miracle of Life

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The Miracle of Life

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Presentation Transcript

  1. The Miracle of Life From Conception to Birth

  2. Sex Cells and Chromosomes

  3. Sex Cells (Also called gametes) Egg Cell (or ovum) Sperm Cell

  4. 23 chromosomes in each sex cell 23rd chromosome is the “sex chromosome” Sex Chromosomes • Egg cell always carries the “X” sex chromosome • Sperm cell can carry the “X” or the “Y” sex chromosome

  5. Which sex cell determines the sex of the baby?

  6. Genes found on chromosomes pass genetic traitsto offspring

  7. It’s Game Time! (Click the image to start)

  8. Inherited Traits • Recessive Traits: will be expressed only if both parents carry the trait. • green, blue, hazel grey eyes • blonde, red or straight hair • baldness • attached earlobes • thin lips • near sightedness • color blindness • Dominant Traits: will be expressed if one of the parents has the gene for that trait. • brown eyes • dark, curly or full head of hair • widow’s peak • dimples • freckles • extra digits • double-jointedness

  9. Pregnancy

  10. Pregnancy Definition: Period of time between conception and birth measured in three month periods called trimestersstarting from the first day of the last menstrual period normally lasts 9 months or 40 weeks

  11. Conception • Definition: the process of becoming pregnant including fertilization • Starts with two tiny cells (sperm and egg) that join together to grow into a baby

  12. The strongest, fastest healthiest sperm have the best chance of fertilizing the egg Or maybe the most charming… Clip Fertilization

  13. How does a woman know if she is pregnant? Missed period Breast tenderness or fullness Nausea and sometimes vomiting Changes in appetite Urination Tiredness

  14. Pregnancy Tests Urine test – tests for pregnancy hormone, HCG Pelvic exam – checks for enlarged cervix

  15. Stages of Development

  16. Zygote Single cell formed at conception by union of sperm and egg Contains genetic material from both parents

  17. Zygote divides into a multi-celled mass called an embryo as it travels down the fallopian tubes From Zygote to Embryo

  18. Implantation of Embryo • Embryo searches for a place to implant in the uterine lining, or endometrium • It actually burrows beneath the surface Actual image of implantation

  19. From Embryo to Fetus EMBRYO FETUS • After about two months, the embryo takes on a human appearance and is now called a fetus. Click the photo to see the first few weeks of development.

  20. Formation of Twins Fraternal Two eggs and two sperm Each have different DNA Identical One egg and one sperm Zygote divides and separates into two Each have the same DNA

  21. Structures Inside the Womb

  22. Placenta Grows from the outer edges of the embryo Connects embryo to uterine wall Filters nutrients and waste between mother and baby

  23. Umbilical Cord If mother ingests any toxic substances, such as drugs, alcohol or nicotine, the baby receives these as well! Grows between placenta and baby Provides baby with oxygen and nutrients

  24. Amniotic Sac Thin, but strong, membrane filled with fluid that cushions and protects the fetus and regulates its temperature

  25. How can smoking during a pregnancy affect the baby? After birth: • Asthma and breathing problems • Increased risk of SIDS • Affects physical and intellectual growth • Behavioral problems In the womb: Low birth weight Stillborn baby Increased risk of birth defects Premature birth

  26. Did You Know? Pregnant women who use drugs such as heroin, cocaine, marijuana, PCP, methadone, and/or amphetamines may give birth to drug-addicted babies.

  27. How does alcohol use affect the baby? • Increased risk of miscarriage • Birth defects • Fetal Alcohol syndrome (FAS) • - facial abnormalities • - malformations of the heart • - growth retardation • - mental disorders

  28. It’s Game Time! (Click the image to start)

  29. Labor and Birth

  30. Signs of Labor “Water breaks” - amniotic sac bursts, the fluid is released through the vaginal canal Contractions - uterine muscles give cramping sensation as cervix starts to dilate Either one could happen first!

  31. Birth Position

  32. Birth Natural birth - Baby is pushed out through birth canal (vagina) Caesarian section – Baby is removed from uterus via surgery Click the photo to see how the baby makes its way out of the womb.

  33. First Breath The linking passage outside the heart will close off and force oxygenated blood to the lungs so the baby can take its first breath. The hole in the heart will close, changing the heart from a one-pump heart to a two-pump heart.

  34. Afterbirth Umbilical cord ceases working and is cut and clamped Placenta detaches from the side of the uterus and is pushed out

  35. The End