History • Started with Greek Athletes • Plants • In 1800’s uses included Cocoa Plant, Heroine and Cocaine • 1900’s: Alcohol, Strychnine, Testosterone, Anabolic Steroids, Dianabol, steroid races, Human Growth Hormone • Testing for athletes
Ancient Times • Ancient Olympians drank wine and experimented with herbs to enhance performance • Ancient Roman Gladiators took hallucinogens and stimulants to fight fatigue and injury. • They even feed their horses substances like hydromel (alcoholic beverage made from honey) to make them run faster.
Modern Use • In the late 19th century athletes began to use the coca leaf. They would make a mixture called Vin Mariani, which was a mixture of coca leaf extract and wine. • Coca and cocaine were used because they reduced the sense of fatigue and hunger brought on by prolonged • 1860-1880: “Speed Balls” Heroine-Cocaine used to increase endurance • Swimming and Cyclists • 1886 first reported drug related death in sports- Cyclist
1900’s • "In 1904 Olympics marathon runner, Thomas Hicks, was using a mixture of brandy and strychnine [a stimulant that is fatal in high doses] and nearly died. Mixtures of strychnine, heroin, cocaine, and caffeine were used widely by athletes and each coach or team developed its own unique secret formulae. This was common practice until heroin and cocaine became available only by prescription in the 1920s."
Testosterone Era • 1927-1954 • Testosterone extracted from Bulls • Dramatic increase in aggressive behavior • Germany tests • Given to elite troops • 1945- Soviet govt seizes German scientific and technological advances • 1952 Olympic games & 1954 World Championships • Soviet weight lifting dominated
Anabolic Steroids • A group of synthetic hormones that promote the storage of protein and the growth of tissue • Muscle building without aggression • Dr. Ziegler has big impact on this era • He 1st tested testosterone (which is an AS) on himself • Helped to develop Dianabol (the world’s 2nd AS)
1958 • Dianabol, the first anabolic steroid to gain FDA approval is released by Ciba Pharmaceuticals. • Dianabol was created to maximize the strength-building characteristics of testosterone while minimizing negative side effects. • Close to his death in 1983, Dr. Zieglar speaks out against his invention and says he wishes he had never created the anabolic steroid after seeing athletes abuse the drug.
1964 and 1968 Olympics • 30% of U.S. team on Steroids • During Cold war era • Who’s steroids are stronger, theirs or ours • Deaths from drug overdose is on rise
Early Deaths • British cyclist Tommy Simpson, dies during the 13th stage of the Tour de France on July 13, 1967. The cyclist, whose motto was allegedly "if it takes ten to kill you, take nine and win," consumes excess amounts of amphetamines and brandy to combat the effects of an illness and he continues to ride until his body shuts down.Simpson's death creates pressure for sporting agencies to take action against doping.
1967 • Partly in reaction to Tommy Simpson's death, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) establishes the Medical Commission to fight against doping in sports. The Commission is given three guiding principles: protection of the health of athletes, respect for medical and sport ethics, and equality for all competing athletes.
1968 • "The IOC instituted its first compulsory doping controls at the Winter Olympic Games in Grenoble, France in 1968 and again at the Summer Olympic Games in Mexico City in the same year. • Banned substances included narcotic analgesics and stimulants. • Although it was suspected that androgenic anabolic steroids were being used at this time, there was no reliable way to test for them, therefore they were not included on the list of banned substances.
1970’s • Steroid use gaining national attention • 1969 Sports Illustrated publishes article on use of steroids in Pro and College sports • 1972- 68% of U.S. Olympic T & F athletes used AS • 1976- Montreal Games- Drug testing is mandatory, penalty = disqualification • This led to athletes turning back to testosterone to beat the tests • 1982- Testosterone banned
1980’s to Present • HGH- Human Growth Hormone • 70’s acquired from monkeys • Very expensive • Produced in human pituitary gland • Extracted from cadavers • Soon companies made synthetic version • 1990’s • Black market • Gym deals, athletes providing and even worse… • Coaches providing!
Currently • In 2008, there were 192 banned performance enhancing drugs and methods included in the WADA code (World Anti-Doping Agency) • There have been 21, 849 summer Olympians tested with 105 doping cases reported. • There have 5,264 winter Olympians tested with 13 doping cases reported.
Other Drugs? • Amphetamines • Cocaine • Caffeine • Before 2003, over 18 ounces of coffee was prohibited. • Caffeine and pseudophedrine were removed from the list of banned substances in 2003. • Widespread use of Sudafed in NHL? • http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/features/1998/weekly/980202/nhlstory.html
Pro-Drug Use • Allow use because they are “part of modern sport.” • “Drugs are no more artificial than the entourage of aides and physical equipment commonplace in contemporary sport.” —Dr. Ellis Cashmore, Staffordshire University in England • Argument that current antidrug policies are fraught with hypocrisy. Sport leagues stand to gain from bigger, stronger players and more exciting contests.
Steroids and Baseball • Jose Canseco
Steroids and Baseball • Barry Bonds
Thoughts? • MLB just recently approved mandatory steroid testing in athletes • What will be the impact of this policy • Pro-steroid literature argues that anabolic usage should be accepted and regulated, since athletes use/take them anyway • Agree or disagree
Steroid Debate • debate or paper on drug use.docx
Side Effects of Testosterone • Testosterone abuse in males • Liver disease/possible cancer • Aggression • Acne • Swelling of breasts • High cholesterol • Ongoing erection which can lead to • Damage to the penis and bone pain in pelvis area
Side Effects of Testosterone • Testosterone abuse in females • Cessation of periods • Develop male characteristics • Facial hair • Deep voice
Side Effects of Anabolic Steroids • http://www.roidreport.com/steroids/side-effects-of-anabolic-steroids
Side Effects of HGH • http://www.buzzle.com/articles/human-growth-hormone-hgh-side-effects.html