Prevalence of Gender-Based Violence and Its Impact on Reproductive Health [SPEAKERS’ NAMES] [DATE]
Prevalence of GBV Intimate partner violence (IPV) is prevalent worldwide: • A WHO study conducted in 10 countries found that between 15% and 71% of women experience some form of IPV at some point in their lives; in most countries prevalence estimates range from 30% to 60%. • In most countries 20-33% of women reported IPV within the past 12 months. Source: Garcia-Moreno et al., 2005
75% Prevalence of GBV: Intimate Partner Physical and Sexual Violence 52% 48% 42% 33% 32% 27% 20% 19% 16% Source: Hindin et al., 2008
Prevalence of GBV: Intimate Partner Physical and Sexual Violence 54% 34% 32% 29% 23% 15% Source: Garcia-Moreno et al., 2005
Prevalence of GBV: Intimate Partner Physical Violence • The WHO study found that, of ever-partnered women, 13%-61% experience physical violence at some point in their lives. • Most study sites found a prevalence of 23%-49% of physical IPV. Source: Garcia-Moreno et al., 2005
Prevalence of GBV: Sexual Violence • The WHO study found that 6% to 59% of women reported experience of sexual violence at some point in their lives, with most sites within the 10% to 50% range • 1% to 44% of women experienced sexual violence in the 12 months prior to the study Source: Garcia-Moreno et al., 2005
Prevalence of GBV: Sexual Violence 29% 23.6% 16.6% 26.6% 5.3 % 4.3% Source: Garcia- Moreno et al. 2005
Health Consequences of GBV Source: Adapted from Bott, Morrison, and Ellsberg, 2005.
GBV Is a Public Health Issue Source: Heise et al.,1994.
Health Consequences of GBV Percentage of women who report health outcomes as a consequence of acts carried out by their husbands or partners Source: Dominican Republic Demographic and Health Survey, 2000, cited in Kishor and Johnson, 2004.
GBV Has Severe Reproductive Health Impacts • Violence during pregnancy • Intimate partner violence prevalence of 4-15% during pregnancy • Leading cause of death among pregnant women may be homicide
GBV Has Severe Reproductive Health Impacts (continued) • Violence and HIV/AIDS • Low relationship power and intimate partner violence increase risk of incident HIV infection • Forced sex is correlated to HIV risk • Victims of violence tend to engage in behaviors that put their health at risk • Proposing condom use may increase women’s risk of violence • Disclosing HIV status may increase risk of violence
“It is said that we were all born under a star; when I watch the stars at night I ask which of them is mine, so that I can change it for another one.” --Survivor of GBV, Peru(in Velzeboer et al., 2003)
References Bott, S., A. Morrison, and M. Ellsberg. 2005. Preventing and Responding to Gender-based Violence in Middle and Low-income Countries: A Global Review and Analysis. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3618. Washington, DC: World Bank. Campbell, J.C. 2002. “Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence.” Lancet 359(9314): 1331–1336. Campbell, J.C., and K. L. Soeken. 1999. “Forced Sex and Intimate Partner Violence: Effects on Women’s Risk and Women’s Health.” Violence Against Women 5(9): 1017–1035. Coker A., P. Smith, L. Bethea, M. King, and R. McKeown. 2000. “Physical Health Consequences of Physical and Psychological Intimate Partner Violence.” Archives of Family Medicines 9(5): 451–457. Garcia-Moreno, Claudia. Henrica, A.F.M. Ellsberg, M.E. Heise, L. Watts, C. 2005. “WHO Multi-Country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence Against Women.” Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
References, continued Gielen, A.C., P.J. O’Campo, J.C. Campbell, J. Schollenberger, A.B. Woods, A.S. Jones, J.A. Dienemann, J. Kub, and E.C. Wynee. 2000. “Women’s Opinions About Domestic Violence Screening and Mandatory Reporting.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 19(4): 279–285. Heise, Lori, Jacqueline Pitanguy, and Adrienne Germain. 1994. “Violence against Women: The Hidden Health Burden.” World Bank Discussion Paper No. 255. Washington, DC: World Bank. Heise, L., M. Ellsberg, and M. Gottemoeller. 1999. “Ending Violence Against Women.” Population Reports XXVII (Number 4, Series L, Number 11). Hindin, Michelle J., S. Kishor, and D.L. Ansara. 2008. “Intimate Partner Violence Among Couples in 10 DHS Countries: Predictors and Health Outcomes.” Calverton, MD: USAID. Horon, Isabelle. 2001. “Enhanced Surveillance for Pregnancy-Related Mortality: Maryland, 1993–1998.” Journal of the American Medical Association 285:1455–459.
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