A Multi-Tier System Development Life Cycle Model for Off-the-Shelf Software with Market and Organizational Effects Shalom Cohen, 2004 Supervisors: Prof. Dov Dori Prof. Uzi de Haan
Outline • Introduction • Research aim and motivation • Existing models • Methods and experiment • Why OPCAT? • Preliminary results and insights • Related fields and academic contribution • Itinerary
Research confines Buy outside OTS trend Off-the-Shelf Software Product Innovative product for B2B acquisition type Established Vendor/Entrepreneur Source: (Sawyer, 2001).
Requirements Analysis Design Construction Testing Installation Operation Maintenance Introduction • SDLC – Definition - The software lifecycle, typically includes the following phases: requirements, analysis, design, construction (or coding), testing (validation), installation, operation, maintenance, and retirement SDLC Timeline • SDLC – Acquisition Justification RFP Evaluation Preparations for Acquisition Vendor Evaluation and Choosing Contract Negotiations and signature with vendor Implementation and Maintenance SDLC Timeline Source: (Free, 1996).
Research aim and motivation • Prof. Dori personal experience • Research Gap – Professional Gap • Comprehensive SDLC model with market and organizational effects –(Example) • Bridging the GAP – Bringing fields together – Insights OR, Marketing, IS Acquisition, Development, 3rd party involvement and balances. • Identify impact variables – Serve as basis for future experiments • Answer research question – additional insights into development process Requirements Analysis Design Construction Testing Installation Operation Maintenance Establish a niche market Pass organizational bureaucracy Install pilots Strengthen the need Market product
Users Integrators Consultants OTS Software Stakeholder Vendors Consumers SDLC Timeline
Existing Models Partial Models and other related works • Cusumano et al. (2003-4) - a global overview of software development processes and practices • Verville and Halingten (2002), Nelson et al. (1996),Iivari and Ervasti (1992) - software acquisition • Bourgeois and Eisenhardt (1988) on strategic decision processes in high velocity environments • David (1989), Moore et al. (1990), Benbassat (1991), Mustonen-Ollila & Lyytinen (2003) Diffusion of IT products (not distinguished specific IS / software product) • SW-CMM & CMM/I, Nohal Mafteach, PACE (Product and Cycle-time Excellence) • Sawyer, 2001 • Kiel & Carmel, 1995 These studies have been partially empirically only
Methods and Experiment • Qualitative Research - Case Study Methodology • Choosing Case Study Sites • Deriving Theories from Case Study Research • Why OPCAT? • The logic model
Methods and Experiment Eisenhardt, (1989): “A research strategy which focuses on understanding the dynamics present within single settings” Yin (1984) “an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real life context; when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident; and in which multiple sources of evidence are used.” Three forms of Case Studies exist: • Explanatory • Descriptive • Exploratory (Source: Yin, 1984; Eisenhardt, 1989).
Deciding about the Case Study Sites – Theoretical Sampling • Direct passive observations, Documentation, Interviews (Questionnaires and surveys ), Physical Artifacts
Methods and Experiment Deriving Theories from Case Study Research The broad research question: • What are the common processes, stages, and characteristics involved in introducing OPCAT to customers in the various organization? • What are the differences in the above processes between introduction of OPCAT and the introduction of its underlying methodology OPM? • What are the differences in processes, stages, and characteristics identified between the various vertical sectors and company sizes? • What packaged software lifecycle phases can be generalized from the perspectives of the various stakeholders and what is the interdependence among these phases? (Source: Eisenhardt, 1989)
Information System Why OPCAT? Software OPCAT Software Taxonomy Custom built Software Packaged Software OPCAT Specialized / Professional Niche Products Office Automations OPCAT B2B Market Organizational B2C Market Private OPCAT OPCAT Standard CASE Tool CASE Tools CAD Tools Others
Software Vendor Vendor Taxonomy OBJECTPROCESS Established New (Start-up/Entrepreneur) OBJECTPROCESS Custom Software Vendors OTS Software Vendor OBJECTPROCESS Specialized / Professional Niche Products Office Automations standard new OTS software innovation vendor OBJECTPROCESS B2B Market Organizational B2C Market Private OBJECTPROCESS Software Innovation(Discontinuous Product) Upgrades (Continuous Innovations)
Methods and Experiment • The Preliminary Model
Preliminary results and insights - I • BDL • Security • Designation of an OPCAT advocate from inside • Fast track for application customization tweaks
Preliminary results and insights - II • Research models – suggested and outcomes
Related fields and Academic contribution • Software Engineering and Information Systems • Bringing fields together - Bridging the GAP • IS • Organizational Research and Management - Decision Making – IT Investment/Acquisition • Marketing - Diffusion of Innovations theory – Crossing the Chasm theory, Marketing mix, Market segmentation, Maturity stage of product life cycle through CMM • Practical Contribution