Master of Intellectual Property Law Introduction to the European Patent Convention - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Master of Intellectual Property Law Introduction to the European Patent Convention

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  1. Master of Intellectual Property LawIntroduction to the European Patent Convention

  2. Outline • Introduction to European Patent Law • Fundamentals of European Claim Drafting and interpretation • Opposition and Appeal

  3. Introduction to European Patent Law Part I Thierry DebledEuropean Patent Attorney

  4. Outline • Europe ? • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation of the EPC • Structure of the EPC • The Institutions • Substantial Patent Law (Patentability) • Common Provisions • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  5. Europe ? • European Union • About 500 million inhabitants • Union of 27 independent member states • Unlike PRC, India, USA, Russian Federation, … • No Common Law for all the Member States • In particular: 27 different patent laws ! • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  6. History (1) • Individual nature of the national IP laws regarded as an obstacle for the economic development of Europe. • Attempts/discussions to create an Union on IP have started in 1949 with the Longchambon plan • All attempts have failed until… • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  7. History (2) • The Härtel proposal (1962):- Common Proceedings until grant - then split into national patents (governed by the national Laws of the Member States) • Still today: core principle of the European Patent Convention ! • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  8. History (3) • European Patent Convention • Munich Diplomatic Conference 1973 • Entry into force Oct. 7, 1977 • Second Diplomatic conference Nov. 29, 2000: significant revision • Entry into force: Dec. 13, 2007 • Reference to EPC1973 or EPC2000 • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  9. Europe ? • European Patent Organization • EU + Switzerland LichtensteinMonaco Turkey IcelandCroatia NorwayMacedoniaSan Marino Albania Serbia • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions RS AL

  10. Legal Resources (1) • European Patent Convention (EPC2000) • Set of 175 articles (1-178) + • Implementing Regulations • Protocol on Recognition • Protocol on Privilege and Immunities • Protocol on Centralisation • Protocol on Interpretation of Art. 69 • Protocol on staff complement • Integral part of the EPC (Art. 164) • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  11. Legal Resources (2) • Decisions/Opinions of the Enlarged Board of Appeal of the EPO • Decisions of the Boards of Appeal of the EPO • Legal Advices from the EPO • Guidelines for Examination at the EPO • Ancillary Regulations to the EPC • Decisions of the President of the EPO • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  12. Legal Resources (3) • National Patent/IP Laws • Community Laws (Regulations, Directives) • International Agreements (London agreement, Patent Cooperation Treaty, Vienna Convention…) • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  13. Interpretation of the EPC (1) • Principles of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties • (see OJ EPO, 1984, pp.193-197) • http://untreaty.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/conventions/1_1_1969.pdf • Accession by MK on July 8, 1999 • Not "directly" applicable to the EPC • entry into force: 27 Jan 1980 (Art. 84 VC) • non-retroactivity (Art. 28 VC) • Applicable anyway ! (G5/83, points 3-5) • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  14. Interpretation of the EPC (2) • G5/83 summarises Art. 31 VC • (1) Treaty must be interpreted in good faith. • (2) Terms shall be given ordinary meaning. • (3) The context, for this purpose, is the text (including the Preamble and Implementing Regulations) and any agreement made between all the parties in connection with the conclusion of the treaty (e.g. the Protocol to Article 69 EPC). • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  15. Interpretation of the EPC (3) • G5/83 • (4) Also to be taken into account: - any subsequent agreement regarding interpretation or application. - any subsequent practice establishing agreement of the parties. - any relevant rules of public international law. • (5) Preparatory documents and circumstances. • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  16. Interpretation of the EPC (4) • Elements outside of the EPC • Principles of procedural law generally recognized in the Contracting States (Art. 125) • Good faith • Equality of treatment of parties • Exclusion of the “Reformatio in peius” • Exclusion of “double patenting” • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  17. The European Patent Convention (1) • General and Institutional Provisions • Functioning of the EPO • Substantive Patent Law • Patentability • Right to the patent • Effect of the Patent / patent application • Patent as an object of property • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  18. The European Patent Convention (2) • The European Patent Application • Filing and requirements of the application • Priority • Procedure up to grant • Opposition and Limitation Procedure • Appeals Procedure • Common Provisions • Common provisions re. procedure • Information to the public • Representation • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  19. The European Patent Convention (3) • Impact on National Law • Conversion • Revocation and prior rights • Priority • Special Agreement • PCT • Transitional Provisions (deleted) • Final Provisions • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  20. Art. 4 European patent Organisation Art. 4.2.b) Administrative Council Art. 4.2.a) Art. 4.3 European Patent Office The Institutions (1) • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions Legislative Body Executive Body

  21. Art. 4.2.b) Administrative Council Art. 4.2.a) European Patent Office The Institutions (2) The Task of the Organisation shall be to grant European Patent. • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions Art. 4.3

  22. Art. 4.2.b) Administrative Council The Institutions (3) The Task of the Organisation shall be to grant European Patent. • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions This shall be carried out by the European Patent Office Art. 4.3

  23. The Institutions (4) The Task of the Organisation shall be to grant European Patent. • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions This shall be carried out by the European Patent Office Supervised by the Administrative Council. Art. 4.3

  24. Art. 4 European patent Organisation Art. 4.2.b) Administrative Council Art. 4.2.a) Art. 4.3 European Patent Office The Institutions (5) • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  25. Art. 4.2.b) Administrative Council The Institutions (6) • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  26. Art. 4.2.b) Administrative Council Art. 27 Art. 26 Representatives of the Contracting States ChairmanDeputy(Board) The Institutions (7) • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions Chairman: Mr. Kongstad (DK) Deputy: Mr. Miklós BENDZSEL (HU) Mr Safet EMRULI, Director, State Office of Industrial Property

  27. The Institutions (8) • Competence (Art. 33) • Amend the EPC to bring [it] into line with an international treaty relating to patents or European Community legislation relating to patents • amend time limits of the EPC; • amend the Implementing Regulations; • rules relating to fees; • … • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  28. Art. 4 European patent Organisation Art. 4.2.b) Administrative Council Art. 4.2.a) Art. 4.3 European Patent Office The Institutions (9) • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  29. Art. 4.2.a) European Patent Office The Institutions (10) • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  30. Art. 4.2.a) European Patent Office Art. 21 Boards Of Appeal The Institutions (11) • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions Art. 10 Art. 22 President Enlarged Board Of Appeal Art. 10.2.(i) and Art.10.3 5 Vice-presidents Art. 10.2.(i) and Art.10.2.(f) 6818 Employees

  31. Guillaume Minnoye (BE) Directorate-General Operations Wim van der EijkDirectorate-General Appeals Brian McGinleyDirectorate-General Administration Peter Vermeij Directorate-General Operational Support President Raimund LutzDirectorate-General Legal/International Affairs

  32. Patentability (1) • Art. 52(1)  • European patents shall be granted for any inventions, in all fields of technology, provided that they are new, involve an inventive step and are susceptible of industrial application. • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  33. Patentability (2) • Inventions ? No definition but… • Art 52(2) • The following in particular shall not be regarded as inventions within the meaning of paragraph 1:(a) discoveries, scientific theories and mathematical methods;(b) aesthetic creations;(c) schemes, rules and methods for performing mental acts, playing games or doing business, and programs for computers;(d) presentations of information. • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  34. Patentability (3) • Certain inventions cannot be patented • Art. 53 European patents shall not be granted in respect of: (a) inventions the commercial exploitation of which would be contrary to "ordre public" or morality; such exploitation shall not be deemed to be so contrary merely because it is prohibited by law or regulation in some or all of the Contracting States; (b) plant or animal varieties or essentially biological processes for the production of plants or animals; this provision shall not apply to microbiological processes or the products thereof;(c) methods for treatment of the human or animal body by surgery or therapy and diagnostic methods practised on the human or animal body; this provision shall not apply to products, in particular substances or compositions, for use in any of these methods. • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  35. Patentability (4) • Novelty • Art. 54 (1) An invention shall be considered to be new if it does not form part of the state of the art.(2) The state of the art shall be held to comprise everything made available to the publicby means of a written or oral description, by use, or in any other way, before the date of filing of the European patent application. • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  36. Patentability (5) • Novelty • Art. 54 (3) Additionally, the content of European patent applications as filed, the dates of filing of which are prior to the date referred to in paragraph 2 and which were published on or after that date, shall be considered as comprised in the state of the art. • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  37. Patentability (6) • Novelty • Art. 54 4) Paragraphs 2 and 3 shall not exclude the patentability of any substance or composition, comprised in the state of the art, for use in a method referred to in Article 53(c), provided that its use for any such method is not comprised in the state of the art.(5) Paragraphs 2 and 3 shall also not exclude the patentability of any substance or composition referred to in paragraph 4 for any specific use in a method referred to in Article 53(c), provided that such use is not comprised in the state of the art. • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  38. Patentability (7) • Inventive Step • Art. 56 An invention shall be considered as involving an inventive step if, having regard to the state of the art, it is not obvious to a person skilled in the art. If the state of the art also includes documents within the meaning of Article 54, paragraph 3, these documents shall not be considered in deciding whether there has been an inventive step. • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  39. Patentability (8) • Industrial Application • Art. 57 An invention shall be considered as susceptible of industrial application if it can be made or used in any kind of industry, including agriculture. • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  40. Common Provisions • Pillars of the EPC: • Right to be heard (right to know - right to comment) (Art. 113 (1) EPC) • Principle of inquisitorial proceedings(Art. 114 EPC) • Right to control the proceedings(Art. 113 (1) EPC) • Outline • Europe • History • Legal Resources • Interpretation • Structure • Institutions • Patentability • Common Provisions

  41. Fundamentals of European Claim Drafting and interpretation Part II Thierry DebledEuropean Patent Attorney

  42. Outline • Function of the claims • Categories and kinds • Form of the claims • Interpretation • Wording of the claims • Outline • Function • Categories • Form • Interpretation • Wording

  43. Functions of the claims (1) • Art. 84 The claims shall define the matter for which protection is sought. • Rule 43(1) The claims shall define the matter for which protection is soughtin terms of the technical features of the invention. • Outline • Function • Categories • Form • Interpretation • Wording

  44. Novel Inventive Industrial Appl. Information • Outline • Function • Categories • Form • Interpretation • Wording Public Inventor Monopoly

  45. Functions of the claims (2) • Art. 84 • Rule 43(1) • Art. 69 (1) The extent of the protection conferred by a European patent or a European patent application shall be determined by the claims. Nevertheless, the description and drawings shall be used to interpret the claims. • Outline • Function • Categories • Form • Interpretation • Wording

  46. Categories and Kinds (1) • Categories (Rule 43(2), GL C-III-3.1) • Physical entity: product, object, apparatus, device, compound, composition, … • Activity:process, use, … • Outline • Function • Categories • Form • Interpretation • Wording

  47. Categories and Kinds (2) • Kinds • IndependentEssential feature of the inventionOnly one independent claim in each category (exceptions) (Rule 43(2), GL C-III-3.2) • DependentA claim which includes all the features of any other claim (Rule 43(4))Particular embodiments (GL C-III.3.4Reference to another dependent claim and multi-dependency is admissible • Outline • Function • Categories • Form • Interpretation • Wording

  48. Categories and Kinds (3) • The following are examples of typical situations falling within the scope of the exceptions from the principle of one independent claim per category: • (i) examples of a plurality of inter-related products (Rule 43(2)(a)): • plug and socket; • transmitter – receiver; • intermediate(s) and final chemical product; • gene – gene construct – host – protein – medicament; • Outline • Function • Categories • Form • Interpretation • Wording

  49. Categories and Kinds (4) • (ii) example of a plurality of different inventive uses of a product or device (Rule 43(2)(b)): • claims directed to second or further medical uses when a first medical use is known (see IV, 4.8); • (iii) examples of alternative solutions to a particular problem (Rule 43(2)(c)): • a group of chemical compounds; • two or more processes for the manufacture of such compounds. • Outline • Function • Categories • Form • Interpretation • Wording

  50. Form of the claims (1) • Preferably: “two-parts” form (Rule 43(1)) with as first part • (a) a statement indicating the designation of the subject-matter of the invention and those technical features which are necessary for the definition of the claimed subject-matter but which, in combination, form part of the prior art • Sometimes called: the “preamble” • Outline • Function • Categories • Form • Interpretation • Wording