Agenda November 14 and 15 • Absolute – Develop an understanding of the evolution of thought from Absolute Monarchy to the Enlightenment • Agenda • Review – What we learned before Break • Lecture – Absolute Monarchy to Enlightenment • Exercise and Reading – Enlightened Thinking • HW – Complete chart of enlightenment philosophers for Wednesday/Thursday • Journal - What is one thing you want to share about your break with the class
Today’s Activities • Warm-up followed by informal discussion • “What do you know?” whole class activity • Philosophy definition and key Enlightenment points (notes to be taken) • Small group discussions and questions • Philosopher Chart – Basic Ideas of the 5 Enlightenment Philosophers
Enlightenment • 1300-1600 – Renaissance • Known for tremendous change in thought • Driven by ??? • What comes next • Based on the ideas from the time period, there will be a variety of revolutions that emerge in European society • These revolutions combine to create “the enlightenment”
Scientific Revolution • As ideas of the Renaissance spread, basic assumptions about the world from the Medieval period began to be challenged • Some of these ideas about the natural world had been established by the church and never tested • Some of what drove the new ideas and research was the discovery of new peoples and lands in Africa and the “new world” of the America’s
Groups of 6, number off 1-6 • 1’s and 4’s – The New Model of the Universe • Read pages 624-625 • What is heliocentric mean • What is the new theory about the universe in 3-4 sentences • 2’s and 5’s – The Scientific Method • Read Pages625-626 • Define the Scientific method • Write 3-4 sentences about how it changed science • 3’s and 6’s – Newton and Gravity • Read page 626-627 • What is the law of universal gravitation • What did Newton discover and why is it important in 3-4 sentences
Share as a group • Go over what each partnership learned
What we know • The Universe • Scientific Method • Newton
Important Definitions • Philosophy: “the rational investigation of the truths and principles of being, knowledge, or conduct.” (www.dictionary.com) • Commonwealth: working together for the common good rather than individually for their own private good • State of Nature = the state of mankind before civilization and government; the absence of government • Sovereign: supreme power or ruler
Essential Questions of Enlightenment Philosophy (political questions) • What is the nature of man? • By what rights do governments rule? • What form of rule is the best? In other words, what is the role of government?
Group exercise Imagine you belonged to a society that was establishing a government. Answer the following questions first under the assumption that you want a focus on community security. Then answer them under the assumption that you want a focus on individual rights. You can set this up in a grid format: • What beliefs would you have about the nature of mankind? • What type of ruler would you favor? • How much power would you give your government? • What type of limits would you put on your government?
The Old Way of Thinking:Divine Right of Kings • A king’s right to rule his people comes directly from God • Societies should have a rigid social hierarchy • Ordinary people should look for their ultimate reward in heaven not in life on earth • Religion provides the answers to all of life’s questions
The New Way of Thinking:The Enlightenment • Governments derive their right to govern through the consent of the people they govern • Rank in society should be based on merit • Material well-being, social justice and worldly happiness should be possible for everyone • Science provides the answers to life’s questions
Reading • Read chapter 22 Section 2 pages 629-635 • Start trying to fill in your chart on Locke and Hobbes • Then I’ll add some ideas to your thoughts • Finally, you’ll have time to review and fill in on the rest of the philosophers • Working on the netbooks will be allowed for specific research
Hobbes Locke and Hobbes Locke Humans are reasonable and learn from experience to improve Natural ability to govern themselves and keep order Self-government People born free with natural rights of life, liberty, and property Government’s only job is to protect rights. If they don’t the government can be overthrown. • Humans are naturally selfish and bad • Give up rights to a strong ruler to gain law and order • Absolute monarchy • Government can force obedience to maintain order