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History 320:

History 320:

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History 320:

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  1. History 320: The European Reformation Instructor: Hilmar M. Pabel

  2. What is an historical question? • i(stori/a (history) as inquiry • Factual questions: When / where was Martin Luther was born? • Questions of broader significance require more than a single word or sentence for an answer. • They can often be broken down into several questions. • They require relatively extensive research. • They can elicit divergent answers.

  3. Central Questions • What was the Reformation? • Why did it occur? • Where and when did it take place? • How did it develop? • What were its varieties? Was the Reformation one or many? • How successful was it? • How do historians interpret the Reformation? • How do we find and evaluate these interpretations?

  4. Introduction to MacCulloch’s book • Meanings of words count: Catholic, Protestant, evangelical • “Who or what is Catholic?” (xxix) • Protestants and evangelicals (xx) • “Reformation disputes were passionate about words because words were myriad refractions of a God one of whose names was Word” (xx).

  5. Getting at MacCulloch’s interpretation • statements of purpose and subject matter • “I have written this book…” (xix) • “My subject…is the Church” (xxi) • “This book has no room to describe…” (xxii) • staking positions • “multiple Reformations” (xix) • “It was a process of extreme physical and mental violence” (xxi) • “One conclusion to be drawn…” (xxiii) • “the importance of ideas,” “ideas mattered profoundly,” “the power of ideas” (xxiii) • “My own viewpoint…” (xxv)

  6. Getting at MacCulloch’s interpretation: • method: chronological / thematic • structure • 1) A Common Culture, • 2) Europe Divided, 1570-1619 • 3) Patterns of Life

  7. The Old Church, 1490-1517 • Seeing Salvation in Church • First Pillar: The Mass and Purgatory • Layfolk at Prayer • Second Pillar: Papal Primacy • A Pillar Cracks: Politics and the Papacy • Church versus Commonwealth

  8. Seeing Salvation in Church • What does salvation mean? The First Pillar: The Mass and Purgatory • Background: the sacraments • chantries • indulgences Layfolk at Prayer • confraternities, Oratory (of Divine Love) • pilgrimage • devotions to passion of Christ, Mary • Modern Devotion

  9. Two English Churches • Church of St. John the Baptist, Preston Bissett • Rood screen, St. Mellanus Church, Mullion, Cornwall • More on rood screens

  10. The Seven Sacraments • Baptism • Confirmation • Eucharist aka Communion • Penance (confession, contrition, satisfaction) • Holy Orders • Marriage • Extreme Unction

  11. The Eucharist, Piety, and Prayer • the Mass • Transubstantiation (25-26) • chantry • good works • prayer for the living and dead • Purgatory: “one of the most successful and long-lasting ideas in the Western Church” (13) • Mass of St. Gregory the Great • Woodcut by Albrecht Dürer (1511) • Illumination in Hours of Henry VIII (1500)

  12. Layfolk at Prayer • Confraternities • Oratory of Divine Love, Rome, 1517 • Pilgrimage and the cult of the saints • devotion to the Passion of Christ • devotion to Mary • Modern Devotion: equal spiritual participation of laity and clergy, Imitation of Christ

  13. Crucifixion Scenes • Lucas Cranach the Younger, Weimar Altarpiece, 1555, Image and commentary • Altarpiece in the Church of Sts. Peter and Paul, Weimar, Germany • All three panels of the altarpiece • From Altarpiece at Isenheim by Matthias Grünewald (ca. 1517) • Fra Angelico, Crucifixion with St. Dominic (1442), Florence, San Marco • Fra Angelico, Crucifixion with Saints, (1442), Florence, San Marco

  14. Continuation in tutorial • MacCuloch, 26-52: The Second Pillar