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Kansas College and Career Ready Standards for Mathematics

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## Kansas College and Career Ready Standards for Mathematics

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**Kansas College and Career Ready Standards for Mathematics**Alicia Stoltenberg Sarah Hatoum**KCCRSM Overview**Kansas has adopted the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) as the Kansas College and Career Ready Standards for Mathematics (KCCRSM)**CCSSM Overview**The CCSSM consists of two parts: • Content Standards • What you think of as “traditional” standards outlining mathematical content by grade level. • Different standards by grade level, but tied together through progressions. • Standards for Mathematical Practice • Standards that describe “varieties of expertise” students should develop in their mathematical studies. • Same standards across all grade levels, but they will look different at each grade level.**CCSSM Overview**How to Read the Content Standards**CCSSM Overview**The Three Shifts in Mathematics • Focusstrongly where the standards focus • Coherence: Think across grades and link to major topics within grades • Rigor: In major topics, pursue with equal intensity: • Conceptual understanding • Procedural skill and fluency • Application**CCSSM Overview**Shift One: Focus strongly where the Standards focus • The CCSSM significantly narrow the scope of content and deepen how time and energy are spent in the mathematics. • Focus deeply only on what is emphasized in the standards, so that students gain strong foundations.**CCSSM Overview**Traditional U.S. Approach K 12 Number and Operations Measurement And Geometry Algebra and Functions Statistics and Probability**CCSSM Overview**Common Core State Standards Domain Structure in K – 8 Source: www.illustrativemathematics.org**CCSSM Overview**Focuson the Major Work of the Grade • Two levels of focus • What’s in the standards/What’s out of the standards • The shape of the content that IS in**CCSSM Overview**• The first page of each grade level outlines the “critical areas”, which are considered the major work of the grade.**CCSSM Overview**• Both assessment consortia have also identified clusters within the CCSSM which are “major” and some which are “supporting/additional”.**CCSSM Overview**Shift Two: Coherence Think across grades, and link to major topics within grades • Carefully connect the mathematics within and across grades so that students can build new understanding onto foundations built in previous years. • Each year, we expect solid conceptual understanding of core content and build on it. Each standard is not a new event, but an extension of previous learning.**CCSSM Overview**Coherence: Think across grades Fraction example: “The coherence and sequential nature of mathematics dictate the foundational skills that are necessary for the learning of algebra. The most important foundational skill not presently developed appears to be proficiency with fractions (including decimals, percents, and negative fractions). The teaching of fractions must be acknowledged as critically important and improved before an increase in student achievement in algebra can be expected.” Final Report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008, p. 18)**CCSSM Overview**Coherence: Link to major topics within grades Data representation example: Standard: 3.MD.3**CCSSM Overview**Coherence: Link to major topics within grades Geometric measurement example: Standard: 3.MD.C**CCSSM Overview**Shift Three: Rigor Equal intensity in conceptual understanding, procedural skill/fluency, and application • The CCSSM require a balance of: • Solid conceptual understanding • Procedural skill and fluency • Application of skills in problem solving situations • This requires equal intensity in time, activities, and resources in pursuit of a balance of all three.**CCSSM Overview**• Solid Conceptual Understanding • Standards require that students know more than “how to get the answer”. • Instructional and assessment tasks must provide access to concepts from a number of perspectives to show deep understanding. • Math is more than a set of mnemonics or discrete procedures. • Conceptual understanding supports the other aspects of rigor (fluency and application).**CCSSM Overview**(b) Fluency • The standards require speed and accuracy in calculation. • Fluency is called for explicitly in certain standards.**CCSSM Overview**(c) Application • The standards require that students use appropriate concepts and procedures for application even when not prompted to do so. • Provide opportunities at all grade levels for students to apply math concepts in “real world” situations, recognizing this means different things in K-5, 6-8, and HS.**CCSSM Overview**It starts with Focus • U.S. curriculum has been thought of as ‘a mile wide and an inch deep’. • Focus is necessary in order to achieve the rigor set forth in the standards. • Students having a more in-depth mastery of a smaller set of things pays off.**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing Individual Content Standards or Parts of Standards Examples and Non-Examples Complete the patterns below: 1, 3, 5, ___, ___, ___ A, a, B, b, C, ___, ___, ___ 12, 10, 8, ___, ___, ___ 4.OA.5 NON-EXAMPLE**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing Individual Content Standards or Parts of Standards Examples and Non-Examples 3.OA.3 Original: Each shirt costs $4. How much do 3 shirts cost? Better: Each shirt has 6 buttons. How many buttons are needed to make 7 shirts? Source: PARCC Item Development ITN, Appendix F**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing Individual Content Standards or Parts of Standards Examples and Non-Examples 7.G.3 A circular field with diameter 100 meters is planted with soybeans. How many square meters are planted with soybeans? ( , ) NON-EXAMPLE**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing Individual Content Standards or Parts of Standards Examples and Non-Examples 8.EE.1 Simplify: A. … B. C. … D. … NON-EXAMPLE**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing Individual Content Standards or Parts of Standards Examples and Non-Examples 8.EE.1 Which expression is equivalent to the expression below? A. … 32 2-1 C. … D. …**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing Individual Content Standards or Parts of Standards Alignment in Context: Neighboring Grades and Progressions What are progressions? Many or most of the content standards in K-8 represent steps or stages along a progression of learning and performance. Why are progressions important? They are context for alignment questions. Progression-sensitive tasks will help teachers implement the standards with fidelity. Where can I find more information? Progressions documents are narratives of the standards across grade levels, informed by research on children’s cognitive development and by the logical structure of mathematics. http://ime.math.arizona.edu/progressions/#products**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing Individual Content Standards or Parts of Standards Alignment in Context: Neighboring Grades and Progressions Certain cluster headings use language with a sense of motion from grade to grade. Some examples: Grade 2 Work with equal groups of objects to gain foundations for multiplication. Grade 4 Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers. Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering. Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandingsof operations on whole numbers. Grade 5 Apply and extend previous understandingsof multiplication and division to multiply and divide fractions. Grade 6 Apply and extend previous understandingsof multiplication and division to divide fractions by fractions. Apply and extend previous understandingsof numbers tothe system of rational numbers. Apply and extend previous understandingsof arithmetic toalgebraic expressions. Apply and extend previous understandingsof operations with fractions toadd, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers.**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing Individual Content Standards or Parts of Standards Draft Quality Criteria and Activities Draft quality criteria for CCSS-aligned, high quality assessment tasks for mathematics: • CCSSM Standards-Aligned: • Clear alignment to part of a standard, a whole standard, a cluster, a domain, or a grade • Practices that are connected to content appropriately • Attends to Rigor: • Address conceptual understanding, procedural skill and fluency, and/or application as required by the standard(s) indicated • High Technical Quality: • Mathematically correct • Clear language • Technology provides value • Accessible: • UDL principles, Special education and ELL concerns**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing Individual Content Standards or Parts of Standards Draft Quality Criteria and Activities Alisa had ½ of a liter of juice. She drank ¾ of the juice. How many liters of juice did she drink? How would you code this task to the standards? Describe the degree of alignment, taking into account the context. Could this task be improved to better align, or improved in other ways? What questions did you ask while examining the tasks to determine quality and/or alignment? Source: www.illustrativemathematics.org**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing Individual Content Standards or Parts of Standards Draft Quality Criteria and Activities Source: www.illustrativemathematics.org**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing Individual Content Standards or Parts of Standards Draft Quality Criteria and Activities Source: www.illustrativemathematics.org**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing Individual Content Standards or Parts of Standards Draft Quality Criteria and Activities Elementary: Example task #2 • Helen raised $12 for the food bank last year and she raised 6 times as much money this year. How much money did she raise this year? • Sandra raised $15 for the PTA and Nita raised $45. How many time as much money did Nita raise as compared to Sandra? How would you code this task to the standards? Describe the degree of alignment, taking into account the context. Could this task be improved to better align, or improved in other ways? What questions did you ask while examining the tasks to determine quality and/or alignment? Source: www.illustrativemathematics.org**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing Individual Content Standards or Parts of Standards Draft Quality Criteria and Activities Source: www.illustrativemathematics.org**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing Individual Content Standards or Parts of Standards Draft Quality Criteria and Activities Source: www.illustrativemathematics.org**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing Individual Content Standards or Parts of Standards Draft Quality Criteria and Activities Middle: Example task #1 The students in Mr. Nolan’s class are writing expressions for the perimeter of a rectangle of side length ℓ and width w. After they share their answers, the following expressions are on the board: Which of the expressions are correct and how might the students have been thinking about finding the perimeter of the rectangle? How would you code this task to the standards? Describe the degree of alignment, taking into account the context. Could this task be improved to better align, or improved in other ways? What questions did you ask while examining the tasks to determine quality and/or alignment? Sam: 2(ℓ + w) Joanna: ℓ + w + ℓ+ w Kiyo: 2ℓ+ w Erica: 2w+ 2ℓ Source: www.illustrativemathematics.org**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing Individual Content Standards or Parts of Standards Draft Quality Criteria and Activities Source: www.illustrativemathematics.org**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing Individual Content Standards or Parts of Standards Draft Quality Criteria and Activities Middle: Example task #2 Decide whether each of the following numbers is rational or irrational. Explain how you know. 0.333 1.414213 11 12.34565656 How would you code this task to the standards? Describe the degree of alignment, taking into account the context. Could this task be improved to better align, or improved in other ways? What questions did you ask while examining the tasks to determine quality and/or alignment? Source: www.illustrativemathematics.org**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing Individual Content Standards or Parts of Standards Draft Quality Criteria and Activities Secondary: Example task #1 Suppose P and Q give the sizes of two different animal populations, where Q > P. In a. – d., say which of the given pair of expression is larger. Briefly explain your reasoning in terms of the two populations. How would you code this task to the standards? Describe the degree of alignment, taking into account the context. Could this task be improved to better align, or improved in other ways? What questions did you ask while examining the tasks to determine quality and/or alignment? Source: www.illustrativemathematics.org**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing Individual Content Standards or Parts of Standards Draft Quality Criteria and Activities Secondary: Example task #2 Given a function f, is the statement f(x + h) = f(x) + f(h) true for any two numbers x and h? If so, prove it. If not, find a function for which the statement is true and a function for which the statement is false. How would you code this task to the standards? Describe the degree of alignment, taking into account the context. Could this task be improved to better align, or improved in other ways? What questions did you ask while examining the tasks to determine quality and/or alignment? Source: www.illustrativemathematics.org**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing Individual Content Standards or Parts of Standards Draft Quality Criteria and Activities Source: www.illustrativemathematics.org**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing Individual Content Standards or Parts of Standards Draft Quality Criteria and Activities SBAC Sample Item Source: www.smarterbalanced.org**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing Individual Content Standards or Parts of Standards Draft Quality Criteria and Activities SBAC Sample Item Source: www.smarterbalanced.org**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing Individual Content Standards or Parts of Standards Draft Quality Criteria and Activities SBAC Sample Item Source: www.smarterbalanced.org**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing Individual Content Standards or Parts of Standards Draft Quality Criteria and Activities SBAC Sample Item Source: www.smarterbalanced.org**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing Individual Content Standards or Parts of Standards Draft Quality Criteria and Activities SBAC Sample Item Source: www.smarterbalanced.org**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing at All Levels of the Content Hierarchy • The cluster, domain, and grade levels of CCSSM all hold meaning. Both SBAC and PARCC are exploring this feature of the standards. • There are a finite set of key opportunities to assess at the cluster, domain, and grade levels. • Such opportunities should be identified carefully and must make obvious educational and mathematical sense within the framework of the standards. For example, the first two clusters in NBT are often important to link; and doing simple word problems to apply developing NBT skills requires some grade-level tasks that blend OA and NBT. • This is not a recommendation to make loose interpretations of the standards or go beyond what is written in the standards. Rather, it is an opportunity to measure plausible and immediate implications of what is written in the standard, without ever slipping into the imposition of additional requirements.**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing at All Levels of the Content Hierarchy An illustrative task at the domain level… This problem is plausible as a direct implication of the Grade 4 standards for Number and Operations—Fractions, but since it involves concepts and skills in fraction addition, multiplication, and equivalence, it does not clearly code to any single standard in the NF domain. 9 large trucks are carrying ½ ton of lumber each. 7 small trucks are carrying ¼ ton of lumber each. How many total tons are being carried by all of the trucks? Note: the answer would not need to be simplified to lowest terms. An answer of 9/2 + 7/4 would earn some partial credit. Source: PARCC Item Development ITN, Appendix F**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing at All Levels of the Content Hierarchy A second illustrative task at the domain level… The following problem is plausible as a direct implication of the Grade 4 standards for Number and Operations in Base Ten, but it involves place value understanding as well as elements of place value computation, so it blends the first two clusters in 4.NBT. Find two numbers in this table that differ by approximately two thousand. Source: PARCC Item Development ITN, Appendix F**Features of CCSSM and**Implications for Assessment Assessing at All Levels of the Content Hierarchy A third illustrative task at the domain level… The following illustration is plausible as a direct implication of the Grade 5 standards for Number and Operations in Base Ten, but involves place value understanding as well as elements of place value computation, so the illustration blends the first two clusters in 5.NBT. A bakery made 3,200 cookies and needs to package them in bags for sale. 10 cookies will go in each bag. How many bags will be filled? Source: PARCC Item Development ITN, Appendix F