SEPTEMBER 11 2001 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1lKZqqSI9-s
Falling Man. Documentary... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BXnA9FjvLSU&feature=related
Declaration of War http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bkOCIfNQXP0&feature=related
When Bush's remark was translated into Arabic for broadcast throughout the Middle East, the word "crusade" was rendered as "war of the cross."
Instead of being a last recourse or a necessary evil, violence was established then as the perfectly appropriate, even chivalrous, first response to what is wrong in the world.
...the main point, in relation to Bush's instinctive response to 9/11, is that those religious invasions and wars of long ago established a Western identity precisely in opposition to Islam, an opposition that survives to this day.
A theology narrowly focused on the brutal death of Jesus reinforced the primitive notion that violence can be a sacred act. The cult of martyrdom, even to the point of suicidal valour, was institutionalized in the Crusades, and it is not incidental to the events of 9/11 that a culture of sacred self-destruction took equally firm hold among Muslims. The suicide-murderers of the World Trade Centre, like the suicide-bombers from the West Bank and Gaza, exploit a perverse link between the willingness to die for a cause and the willingness to kill for it. Crusaders, thinking of heaven, honoured that link too.
Crusade /War on Terror Who was blamed for the attack on September 11th? Was September 11, a religious attack or a political attack, explain? Should the word Crusade be used when describing the war on terror?
Is 9/11 the first of attacks between Islamic and Christian powers?
Jerusalem Jerusalem has long been an important and idealized symbol for the Jewish people. This was the city where David created a capital for the Israelites and it’s where Solomon built the first Jewish Temple. The temple overtook all others to become the sole acting religious shrine. The Bible, supported by archeological finds, records that King David defeated the Jebusites in war and captured the city without destroying it. David then expanded the city to the south, and declared it the capital city of the united Kingdom of Israel.
Jerusalem is al-Kuds("the Holy One"), or al-Kuds al-sharifa("the noble holy one") as it was referred to by medieval Arab travellers and writers. Although the Koran never mentions the name "Jerusalem", Islamic tradition holds it that it was from Jerusalem that Prophet Muhammad ascended to heaven to receive the Koran. The city was one of the Arabic empire's first conquests in 638 AD. Sixty years later, the Dome of the Rock was built, a structure in which there lies a stone, from which as tradition says Muhammad rose up. (This is also reputed to be the place Abraham went to sacrifice his son, Isaac in the Jewish tradition, Ishmael in the Muslim one.)
According to the New Testament, Jerusalem was the city to which Jesus was brought as a child, to be presented at the Temple (Luke 2:22) and to attend festivals (Luke 2:41). According to the canonized Gospels, Jesus preached and healed in Jerusalem, especially in the Temple Courts. At the end of each of the Gospels, there are accounts of Jesus' Last Supper in an "Upper Room" in Jerusalem, his arrest in Gethsemane, his trial, his crucifixion at Golgotha, his burial nearby and his resurrection and ascension and prophecy to return.
Background of the Crusades Division of Western (Roman) and Eastern (Byzantine-Orthodox) Christian Empires. Late 1000s: Eastern society plagued by disease, hunger, poverty, lawlessness, violence, young secular governments that lack control and authority. CHAOS , ANARCHY and SUFFERING. Religion permeates every aspect of life. God-fearing society where the Church is the only beacon of hope. For centuries nomadic (converted Isalamic) Turks have been reducing the Kingdom and influence of the Byzantine empire.
Pope Urban • Astute politician • Charismatic speaker • Wanted unity of the two Christian empires • Wanted to assert Roman Church’s influence. • Direct knight’s violence way from brutalising the western church Alexius I Emperor of Byzantine Called for the Pope’s help. Wanted extra soldiers so that he may defend his Empire against the Turks who threatened to further reduce his influence.
And so Pope Urban II called for a Crusade... Council of Clermont 1095 ‘For, as the most of you have heard, the Turks and Arabs have attacked t them and have conquered the territory of Romania [the Greek empire] as far west as the shore of the Mediterranean and the Hellespont, which is called the Arm of St. George. They have occupied more and more of the lands of those Christians, and have overcome them in seven battles. They have killed and captured many, and have destroyed the churches and devastated the empire...
... If you permit them to continue thus for awhile with impurity, the faithful of God will be much more widely attacked by them. On this account I, or rather the Lord, beseech you as Christ's heralds to publish this everywhere and to persuade all people of whatever rank, foot-soldiers and knights, poor and rich, to carry aid promptly to those Christians and to destroy that vile race from the lands of our friends. I say this to those who are present, it meant also for those who are absent. Moreover, Christ commands it. "All who die by the way, whether by land or by sea, or in battle against the pagans, shall have immediate remission of sins. This I grant them through the power of God with which I am invested. O what a disgrace if such a despised and base race, which worships demons, should conquer a people which has the faith of omnipotent God and is made glorious with the name of Christ!
Peter the Hermit After hearing the speech of Pope Urban, Peter the Hermit, a monk from Amiens, France, preached in favour of war against the Turks. He preached in churches, on the streets, wherever he could secure an audience. When Peter had gone over Italy he crossed the Alps and preached to the people of France, Germany, and neighbouring countries. Everywhere he kindled the zeal of the people, and multitudes enlisted as champions of the cross. In 1096, Peter led a band of uneducated and unprepared people in what is now known as the People’s Crusade or the Peasants crusade.
The People’s crusade... “The most cruel slaughter of the Jews” In order to make the journey, though, the crusaders needed money. The common people preparing to leave with Peter the Hermit for the Holy Land found the money in the only place they could justify. Throughout Europe, 10,000 Jews were stabbed, dismembered and killed for their gold by the Christian crusaders. The massacre of the Jews were morally justified by the Crusaders- as indiscriminate Saracen killing. When this particular holocaust was finished, the People’s Crusade had plenty of money and over 100,000 followers. The crusade of the paupers, which forms the first act in the first crusade, was his work; and he himself led one of the five sections of the paupers to Constantinople, starting from Cologne in April, and arriving at Constantinople at the end of July 1096. His division was slaughtered by the Turks while he was in Constantinople, he joined the army again in 1098. Legend has made Peter the Hermit the author and originator of the first crusade.
Three main leaders of the First Crusade Bohemond Godfrey Boullion Baldwin
The First official Crusades were launched in the autumn of 1096... Many knights and foot soldiers set-out in search for salvation, glory or plunder. The majority of the Crusaders came for France and Germany, that is why the Crusaders are frequently referred to as the Franks. Alexius was furious at the 1000s of pilgrims who had Marchd on Constantinople, he could not offend them For threat that they would attack. A deal was struck between Alexius I and the Crusade Leaders. Alexius would feed the Crusaders in return for allegience And the return of any conquered lands. Nicaea... The first major siege of the first crusade. The danger Byzantium stood in is amply demonstrated by the presence of the Seljuk Turks at Nicaea, a major fortified city only fifty miles from Constantinople
Second seige...Dorylaion July 1097. Bohemond’s men had been seperated on the mountainous march. Turks had set up an ambush (revenge for battle of Nicaea). Led by Sultan Kilage Arslin Turks fought brilliantly: new battle tactics: riding archers, foot bows Had Frankish reinforcements (led by Godfrey) not come, the battle at Dorylaion would have been a Turkish victory. Overwhelmed by the numbers, the Turks retreated. 1000’s of lives from both sides were lost.
The journey from Dorylaion took three weeks over the safety from the mountains. The plains of Pesilla reacher 90 degrees Faranheight, crusaders were thirsty, hungry and dying of heat stroke. Baldwin’s wife died on this journey (and with her, his entitlement to her family’s wealth perished.) Baldwin policy now became one of aquisition- he and some of his men left the crusade to seize the city of Eddessa. The problem for Baldwin was that Edessa was a Christain city ruled by a weakened old man. Baldwin left the Crusade to seize the Christian city of Edessa. Baldwin promised the weakened elderly ruler (Thuros) protection in return for his adoption and consequent betrothal of the city. After his adoption, Baldwin slayed the King and crowned himself ruler of Edessa.
A prize second only to Jerusalem... The Crusaders marched on towards Antioch. Antioch: root of escape, supply and reinforcements. Site of St. Peter’s church. Eight months passed without crusaders succeeding in breaching the city walls. (increased famine and pestilence). The Turks who were lead by Yaghi-Siyan were betrayed by a Muslim named Furos. Furos led Crusaders into the city, where upon Antioch was taken by Crusaders. After the victory, Turkish reinformcements arrived... The seigers had become the beseiged. Peter the Hermit claimed to find the Holy Lance (sword which pierced Jesus) and renewed the Army’s vigour to repel the Turkish reinforcements. With a renewed sense of vigour and enthusiasm, the Crusaders were able to resist the Turkish attacks and consolidate their territorial conquest. The Massacre of Antioch, by Gustave Dore
Bohemond crowns himself Prince of Antioch Question: Why do you think the Crusaders are able to take over consecutive Turkish lands?
The carnage of the Crusade... Perhaps, the greatest example of possessed and horror-filled crusade warfare came in 1098 with the siege of a small city called Ma’arrat al-Numan. Frustrated with the indecision of Crusae leaders a small force went in search of there own glory and plunder. With ease they ambushed and took control of Ma’arrat al-Numan. Not satisfied with simply taking the city, the Crusaders massacred the entire population. Muslims, Christians, soldiers, children... Few one was spared. These events were also chronicled by Fulcher of Chartres, who wrote: "I shudder to tell that many of our people, harassed by the madness of excessive hunger, cut pieces from the buttocks of the Saracens already dead there, which they cooked, but when it was not yet roasted enough by the fire, they devoured it with savage mouth." The slain enemy was given no honour or mercy even in death.
The Crusaders storm on Jerusalem... After three years of travelling and fighting, less than a quarter of the original crusaders arrived at Jerusalem in 1099. Godfrey led the army that took control of Jerusalem. The Crusaders led a two pronged attack using two seige towers. Godfrey moved tower to weak spot in the wall- which they were able to exploit and conquer. Once they had breached the walls of the city, the Crusaders killed all inhabitants, men, women and children were killed. Some estimate that 30 000 Muslims and Jews were killed. A year later (after a pious Godfrey had refused to take the thrown) Baldwin crowned himself King of Jerusalem. The victory laid true the claims that God wanted these Crusades.
With the capture of Jerusalem,The First Crusade is a victory for the Christians! The problem now becomes keeping it...