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Antiquity of Humanity

Antiquity of Humanity

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Antiquity of Humanity

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  1. Antiquity of Humanity Later Human Evolution: Genus Homo

  2. Evolution of Humans

  3. Homo habilis (ca. 2.5-1.6 mya)

  4. First Stone Tools:Oldowan Pebble Choppers

  5. Homo erectus(ca. 1.6 mya-300 kya) • First Humanoid Out of Africa-spread to Middle East and Asia. • First Humanoid to have controlled use of fire. • Characteristics: • Larger brain (900-1250 cc) • Larger body size (5’5’’-6’) • Acheulian Hand Axes

  6. Homo erectus(ca. 1.6 mya- 300 kya)

  7. Acheulian Hand Axes

  8. Archaic Homo sapiens(ca. 800-400 kya) • Populations located in Africa, Middle East, Southern Europe and Asia • Characteristics: • Large brain size (1100-1400 cc) • More complex campsites, etc. • Advanced Acheulian tools

  9. Archaic Homo sapiens

  10. Advanced Acheulian Tools

  11. Homo sapiens neanderthalensisNeandertals (ca. 100-32 kya) • Species restricted to Europe, eastern Middle East during height of Ice Age • Evolved to be specifically cold-adapted: • Short and stocky body type • Large nose (nasal passages for warming air) • Barrel chest (also for warming air) • Long, low, thick skull but with large cranial capacity (1250-1750 cc)

  12. Homo sapiens neanderthalensisNeandertals (ca. 100-32 kya)

  13. Not the “Cave Men” they were made out to be! • First to bury dead • First to create art on rocks and bone • Elaborate Stone and Bone Tool technology • Mousterian tools • Some degree of altruism • Old Man of La Chapelle • Individual from Shanidar

  14. Mousterian Tools: Period of stone tools associated with Neandertals

  15. Burial at Tabun, Mt. Carmel, Israel

  16. Shanidar 1: Eye Socket crushed-blinded in that eye

  17. Homo sapiens sapiensca. (130 kya…) • Fully modern humans • Probably evolved in Africa and spread to other regions to replace Archaics and Neandertals. • Upper Paleolithic tool technology • Elaborate Cave Art

  18. Homo sapiens sapiens

  19. Upper Paleolithic Tools

  20. At What Point Did We Become “Human”? • Australopithecines • Bipedal, but still ape-sized brain • Homo habilis • First to use tools • Homo erectus • Tools, Out of Africa, Use of Fire • Homo sapiens neandertalensis • Altruism, Burial of Dead • Homo sapiens sapiens • Modern appearance, Use of art on large scale