Download
earth from geological viewpoint n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Earth from geological viewpoint PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Earth from geological viewpoint

Earth from geological viewpoint

177 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Earth from geological viewpoint

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Earth from geological viewpoint

  2. Earth from meteorological viewpoint

  3. Earth from ecological viewpoint Earth as huge system of interdependent, interacting, parts

  4. The 4 components of Earth 1. Lithosphere: the solid Earth; land, soil

  5. The 4 components of Earth 2. Hydrosphere: the liquid Earth; water

  6. The 4components of Earth 3. Atmosphere: the gaseous Earth; air

  7. The 4 components of Earth 4. Organisms: living things

  8. Biosphere Includes parts of all 4 components of Earth in which living things occur.

  9. Levels of organization in the living world

  10. Levels of organization in the living world • Organisms: individual living things

  11. Levels of organization in the living world • Population: group of individuals of same species occupying a given area at the same time.

  12. Levels of organization in the living world • Community: populations of all species occupying a particular place

  13. Levels of organization in the living world • Ecosystem: community(ies) interacting with one another and with the physical environment in a particular place

  14. Levels of organization in the living world • Biome: a major category of ecosystem (e.g., desert, grassland, tropical rainforest, etc.)

  15. ECOLOGY • Ecology: the scientific study of ecosystem structure and function • Ecologists vs. Environmentalists

  16. Structure of ecosystems 1. Energy source • Usually sunlight Deep sea vent

  17. Structure of ecosystems 2. Physical environment: non-living materials like air, water, minerals, etc.

  18. Structure of ecosystems 3. Producers • Make their own food

  19. Structure of ecosystems 4. Consumers • Eat other living things • Primary • Secondary

  20. Structure of ecosystems 5. Decomposers • Eat waste matter and dead living things

  21. Function of ecosystems • All ecosystem interactions depend on • 1. One-way flow of energy • 2. Matter cycling

  22. Energy Flow • Energy: the ability to do work • Energy quality: measure of ability to do work

  23. Energy Flow • Energy: the ability to do work • Energy quality: measure of ability to do work • High: organized, concentrated; great ability to do work. Ex. electricity

  24. Energy Flow • Energy: the ability to do work • Energy quality: measure of ability to do work • High: organized, concentrated; great ability to do work. Ex. electricity • Low: disorganized or dilute; low ability to do useful work. Ex. heat less than 100°C

  25. Laws of thermodynamics • 1. Matter and energy can’t be created or destroyed, only transformed • You can’t get something for nothing • There’s no such thing as a free lunch • E = mc2 • 2. Energy degrades to a less usable, lower quality form (low heat is lowest) • Energy quality “tax” • You can’t win • You can’t get out of the game, either

  26. One-way flow of energy • Food chain: a series of organisms, each eating or decomposing the preceding one. A channel for one-way flow of energy (and the recycling of materials). • Individual organisms

  27. One-way flow of energy • Food Web: a tracing of movement of all energy (and matter) passing through an ecosystem. • Including all interconnected food chains

  28. One-way flow of energy • Some concepts • Pyramid of energy: due to the “energy quality tax” of the second law of thermodynamics, only 2-30% of the energy a one trophic level is transferred to the next trophic level • Depends on species and ecosystems involved • The “average” number is 10%

  29. One-way flow of energy • Pyramid of numbers and biomass: related to the pyramid of energy. • More people can be supported by plants than by animal meat

  30. One-way flow of energy • Pyramid of numbers and biomass: Human Trout Frogs Grasshoppers Grass 1 300 90,000 27,000,000 1000 tons

  31. Human 1 Trout Humans 300 30 Frogs 90,000 Frogs 90,000 Grasshoppers 27,000,000 Grasshoppers 27,000,000 Grass 1000 tons Grass 1000 tons One-way flow of energy • Pyramid of numbers and biomass:

  32. Human 1 Trout 300 Frogs 90,000 Humans 900 Grasshoppers 27,000,000 Grasshoppers 27,000,000 Grass 1000 tons Grass 1000 tons One-way flow of energy • Pyramid of numbers and biomass:

  33. Human 1 Trout 300 Frogs 90,000 Grasshoppers 27,000,000 Humans 2,000 Grass 1000 tons Grass 1000 tons One-way flow of energy • Pyramid of numbers and biomass:

  34. One-way flow of energy • Net Primary Productivity: rate at which plants produce chemical energy (PSS) MINUSthe rate at which plants use chemical energy (respiration) • The “income” of animals

  35. So, which biomes on Earth are the most productive?

  36. Kcal/m2/yr

  37. Kcal/m2/yr