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Designing Effective Training Systems

Designing Effective Training Systems

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Designing Effective Training Systems

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  1. Designing Effective Training Systems • Conduct needs analysis • Ensure employee readiness for training • Create learning environment • Ensure transfer of training • Evaluate training program IRWIN • a Times Mirror Higher Education Group, Inc., company, 1997

  2. The Needs Assessment Process Training Pressure Points Organizational Analysis Person Analysis - Is it a training problem? - Who needs training? - Are employees ready for training? - Support for training? - Sufficient resources? - Fit with strategic objectives? Task Analysis - identify tasks, skills, knowledge, and behavior IRWIN • a Times Mirror Higher Education Group, Inc., company, 1997

  3. Implications of Business Strategy for Training How Achieved Training Implications Strategy Key Issues Concentration - improve quality - current skills - develop work force - team building - cross-training - people skills - on-the-job Internal Growth - global expansion - new products - joint ventures - innovation - creating new jobs & tasks - cultural training - creativity training - communication - technical skills - conflict resolution External Growth (acquisition) - acquire firms - integration - redundancy - restructuring - integrate training systems - team building - identify capabilities Disinvestment - cost reduction - redefine goals - sell assets - efficiency - stress management - time management - cross-training - outplacement IRWIN • a Times Mirror Higher Education Group, Inc., company, 1997

  4. Training :Methods & Effectiveness Trainabilty Ability / Skill Areas HIGH LOW Technical Decision-Making Communication Consideration/empathy Leadership Motivation Appraisal/coach Creativity Coping with change Integrity Effort/persistence Commitment

  5. Training :Areas & Effectiveness Trainabilty Ability / Skill Areas HIGH LOW X X X Technical Decision-Making Communication Consideration/empathy Leadership Motivation Appraisal/coach Creativity Coping with change Integrity Effort/persistence Commitment X X X X X X X X X

  6. Training Methods • Presentation Techniques • classroom instruction • distance learning • audiovisual • Hands - on Techniques • on-the-job training (OJT) • self-directed learning • simulations • business games, case studies • behavior modeling • interactive video • Group-based Techniques • adventure (wilderness) learning • team training • action learning IRWIN • a Times Mirror Higher Education Group, Inc., company, 1997

  7. Evaluating Training Programs Four categories of evaluation include: • Affective • reaction of trainee to program • Cognitive • knowledge of program content • Skill-based • technical skills or behavior • Results • effect on company performance IRWIN • a Times Mirror Higher Education Group, Inc., company, 1997

  8. Training Evaluation Designs • Pretest / Posttest with control group • Pretest / Posttest • Posttest only • Time series IRWIN • a Times Mirror Higher Education Group, Inc., company, 1997

  9. Learning Theory Remediation Desired Level Limit end of training? Performance Measure Grappling need for support I Got It! forcefeed Time

  10. Myers - Briggs Types 16 personality types based on the following 4 dimensions: • Energy: where people get strength and vitality from • extroverts (e) - interpersonal relationships • introverts (i) - personal thoughts and feelings • Life-Style: tendency to be flexible and adaptable • judging (j) - focus on goals, establish deadlines • perceiving (p) - enjoy surprises, change decisions • Information-gathering: actions taken in decision-making • sensing (s) - gather facts, detail • intuitive (i) - focus on possibilites, idea relationships • Decision-making: amount of consideration for other’s feelings • thinking (t) - objective focus • perceiving (p) - evaluate the impact of decisions on others IRWIN • a Times Mirror Higher Education Group, Inc., company, 1997

  11. Characteristics of Successful Mentoring Programs • Participation is voluntary • Matching process is flexible • Mentors are chosen on ability & willingness • Purpose is clearly understood • Program length is specified • Minimum level of contact is specified • Contact among participants is encouraged • Program is evaluated • Employee development is rewarded IRWIN • a Times Mirror Higher Education Group, Inc., company, 1997

  12. Characteristics of Successful Diversity Programs • Supported by top management • Structured • Tied to business objectives • Evaluations used • Manager involvement required • Viewed as cultural change • Blame is not emphasized • Behaviors, interaction skills taught • Managers rewarded for increasing diversity Sources: S. Rynes and B. Rosen, “What Makes Diversity Programs Work?” HR Magazine (October, 1994), 67-73; S. Rynes and B. Rosen, “A Field Survey of Factors Affecting the Adoption and Perceived Success of Diversity Training,” Personnel Psychology 48 (1995): 247-270; J. Gordon, “Different fromWhat? Diversity as a Performance Issue.” Training (May 1995):25-33.

  13. Current Issues • Cross-cultural Preparation • Managing Work-Force Diversity • through adherence to legislation, AA • through attitude & behavior change • Melting the Glass Ceiling • Joint Union-Management Programs • Succession Planning • Dysfunctional Managers IRWIN • a Times Mirror Higher Education Group, Inc., company, 1997

  14. A Model of Career Development Exploration Stage: Characteristics Tasks - Identify interests and skills - Fit between self and work - Engaged in Helping and Learning - Serves as Apprentice Activity Exploration Stage Relationship to others 30 AGE IRWIN • a Times Mirror Higher Education Group, Inc., company, 1997

  15. A Model of Career Development Establishment Stage: Characteristics Tasks Establishment Stage - Advancement - Growth - Develop life-style - Independent contributor - Become a Colleague Activity Relationship to others 45 30 AGE IRWIN • a Times Mirror Higher Education Group, Inc., company, 1997

  16. A Model of Career Development Maintenance Stage: Characteristics Maintenance Stage Tasks - Update skills - Remain a contributor - Trainer - Sponsor - Policy-maker - Become a Mentor Activity Relationship to others 45 30 60 AGE IRWIN • a Times Mirror Higher Education Group, Inc., company, 1997

  17. A Model of Career Development Disengagement Stage Tasks Characteristics Activity - Retirement planning - Change balance between work & life - Phase out of work - Become a Sponsor Relationship to others 45 30 60 AGE IRWIN • a Times Mirror Higher Education Group, Inc., company, 1997

  18. The Career Planning Process Action Plans Goal Setting Reality Check - devise short- and long-term developmental plans Self- Assessment - feeedback on skills, knowledge - determine career interests, values, aptitudes IRWIN • a Times Mirror Higher Education Group, Inc., company, 1997

  19. Roles in the Career Planning (CP) Process • Employee’s role • primary responsibility for own CP • get feedback about strengths, weaknesses • identify developmental needs • expose oneself to learning opportunities • interact with many different employees • Manager’s role • coach, appraiser, adviser and referral agent • Company’s role • provide employees with resources for CP IRWIN • a Times Mirror Higher Education Group, Inc., company, 1997

  20. Characteristics of Effective Orientation Programs • Encourage employees to ask questions • Information on technical / social aspects of job • Responsibility of manager • Avoid embarrassing new employee • Formal/informal interactions with managers/peers • Include relocation assistance • Provide information about company products, etc. IRWIN • a Times Mirror Higher Education Group, Inc., company, 1997

  21. Career Development Issues • Career Plateau • most likely during mid-career • Dual career paths • technical / professional vs. managerial • Skills obsolescence • continuous learning • Balancing work and family • Coping with job loss • provide outplacement services • Retirement • meet needs of older worker • pre-retirement socialization • early retirement programs IRWIN • a Times Mirror Higher Education Group, Inc., company, 1997

  22. Company Policies to Accommodate Work and Family • Communicate information about • work and family policies • job demands • Flexibility in work arrangements & schedules • job sharing, flextime, part-time work, • home-based work, compressed workweek • Support services • elder and child care • manage training IRWIN • a Times Mirror Higher Education Group, Inc., company, 1997