Station #1 • Students will study the nucleus. • The nucleus is an organelle that is only found in eukaryotic cells. • The nucleus contains the DNA of a cell. It protects the DNA from digestive enzymes found in the cytoplasm. • The nucleus has pores to let proteins enter and leave the cell.
Station #1 • Structure #1 is the nucleus. Write that in on your sheet. • Answer these questions: • What kind of cells have a nucleus? • What biomolecule does the nucleus contain? • Why does the nucleus protect this molecule?
Station #2 • Students will study the ribosomes. • The ribosomes are organelles that produce ALL of the proteins within a cell. • ALL cells, even prokaryotic cells, have ribosomes. • Ribosomes are found in two places in the cell: attached to the endoplasmic reticulum and free-floating in the cytoplasm.
Station #2 • The structures at #2 are all ribosomes. Write that on your sheet. • Answer these questions: • What do ribosomes do? • Do bacteria have ribosomes? • Do animal and plant cells have ribosomes? • Where can you find ribosomes in the cell?
Station #3 • Students will study the rough endoplasmic reticulum. • The rough ER is a structure that contains many of the ribosomes in eukaryotic cells. You will not find it in prokaryotic cells.
Station #3 • Structure #3 is the rough ER. Write that on your sheet. • Answer these questions: • What kind of cells have a rough ER? • What organelles does the rough ER contain?
Station #4 • Students will study the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. • The smooth ER is an organelle that is used to process toxins and create hormones within the cell. • You will only really see the smooth ER in specialized tissue designed to process toxins, like liver tissue – or organs related to hormones, such as the sex organs.
Station #4 • Structure #4 is the smooth ER. Write that in on your sheet. • Answer these questions: • What two roles does the smooth ER do? • Name two organs that would have the smooth ER.
Stations #5 • Students will study the Golgi apparatus. • The Golgi apparatus is an organelle that sorts and transports molecules in the cell. • The Golgi is only found in eukaryotic cells. • Molecules are often tagged with proteins that direct them to the correct part of the cell.
Station #5 • Structure #5 is the Golgi apparatus. Write that on your sheet. • Answer these questions: • What role does the Golgi play in the cell? • How does it direct molecules around?
Station #6 • Students will study the cell membrane. • As discussed in biomolecules, the cell membrane is composed of lipids. Specifically, lipids mixed with phosphorus – phospholipids. • The cell membrane separates the external and cellular environments. It is soft and flexible. • The cell membrane contains many receptors for binding to other molecules. It also has transport proteins, for importing and exporting molecules.
Station #6 • Structure #6 is the cell membrane. Write that on your sheet. • Answer these questions: • What biomolecules make up the bulk of the cell membrane? • Is the cell membrane soft and flexible, or hard and rigid? • What other structures are found in the cell membrane (name two!)?
Station #7 • Students will study the mitochondria. • Mitochondria are specialized organelles that create ATP through cellular respiration. ATP is a molecule used for energy in eukaryotes. • ATP is required to activate enzymes and expand muscles. • Because mitochondria enable cellular respiration, eukaryotes can produce energy more efficiently than prokaryotes.
Station #7 • Structure #7 is a mitochondrion. Write that on your sheet. • Answer these questions: • Mitochondria create what energy molecule? • What is the process that creates that molecule? • Only eukaryotes have mitochondria. Because of that, are they more or less efficient at producing energy?
Station #8 • Students will study the lysosomes. • The lysosomes are small bubbles, or vesicles that contain strong digestive enzymes. These organelles are mostly found in animal cells. • Lysosomes are used to digest food, wastes and other foreign compounds. • If all the lysosomes in a cell ruptured, the cell would digest itself!
Station #8 • Structure #8 is a lysosome. Write that on your sheet. • Answer these questions: • Lysosomes contain ____________________. • Lysosomes are found mainly in _________ cells. • What do lysosomes digest?