American’s with Disabilities Act of 1990 The ADA is civil rights legislation that focuses on the ability of people with disabilities to function in our society without discrimination due to their disability. It is comprised of 5 sections, called titles.
Title I- Employment Regulations Generally states that people with disabilities cannot be discriminated against in the hiring or maintenance of employment.
Title II- Public Entities • Generally states that activities, services & programs of public entities must be available to all people without discrimination due to disability. • Public entities are state and local government, and any of its departments, agencies, etc. • Includes such things as courts, town meetings, police & fire departments, motor vehicle licensing, voting, etc.
Title III- Public Accommodations • Focuses on accessibility (mobility and sensory) in public spaces • Does not govern accessibility in private homes • Guidelines are for NEW construction (after 1990); old buildings do notHAVE to comply BUT whenever renovations are made to existing buildings a certain % of the $$$ must go toward improving accessibility
Title IV-Telecommunications • focuses on telecommunications, especially for deaf/ hard of hearing; instigated satellite relay program where anyone can communicate with a person using a TDD (telephone device for the deaf) by going through a special operator who acts as translator.
Title V- Remedies talks about time frames for bringing ADA into reality
Title IIIAccessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) • Builds on previously used guidelines including Uniform & ANSI Standards • Local & state building codes must also be followed. In any situation the code (or guideline) that is most strict should be enforced
ADA Accessibility Guidelines and guidelines for home building are DIFFERENT • When you’re doing home accessibility, use ADAAG as a guide, but you need to address YOUR CLIENT’S needs • Likely to differ from ADAAG • We’ll go over ADAAG first, then talk about private homes
Parking • up to 25 spaces, one must be van accessible; the number goes up from there • accessible spaces must be on shortest accessible route to accessible entrance • clear signage
Changes in Level (i.e.. curbs, steps) • RAMP- Ratio of rise to run • 1:12 • 5 slope
Pathway • Must be at least 36" wide • If it’s less than 60" wide and longer than 200 feet, there has to be places where it is at least 60"
Common Measurements • Forward reach- 48” • Side reach- 54” • Width clearance- 32”
Home Accessibility Some of the following information is not governed by legislation and depends on the needs of your individual client and his/her situation. Personal homes are NOT governed by ADA, but regulations are a good starting place.
Doorway • Direction of swing • Force to open door (5 lbs per square inch- indoors) • Width clearance- measure with and without door • Threshold (door saddle)- (ADA) less than 1/2"; otherwise it’s considered a step and needs a ramp
Toilet • Space for transfer • Seat height (17-19” ADA) • Accessible/usable flusher • Accessible TP • Grab bar
Bathroom SINK • knee clearance at basin (height and depth) • depth of basin • height of vanity or sink edge (34” max ADA) • faucets • exposed pipes- insulate
Sleeping Area • Bed • Clothing storage • Commode?
Kitchen • Appliances • Table • height of top of surface • knee clearance • counters • floor plan
Stairs • Railing • Steps should all be same height (rise) • Is run deep enough for foot to rest? • Does foot catch on overhang? • LIGHTING • Floor surface • W/C up and down?
Vision Impairment signage must be easy to see size universal symbols color contrast Hearing Impairment visual alarms must accompany auditory alarms sign language interpretation must be available (or arrange-able) TDD must be available Sensory
General Issues • Remove area/scatter rugs- easier wheelchair rolling and lessens likelihood of tripping • Lighting- is there enough? can (s)he get to switches? • Electrical cords should be out of the way • Room temp and air circulation • Remove all unneeded clutter including furniture. larger, open areas are easier to navigate
Communication • telephone- VERY IMPORTANT in all cases!!!! • answer door • emergency call system