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Europeanisation of Political Parties: the Emergence of Europarties

Europeanisation of Political Parties: the Emergence of Europarties

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Europeanisation of Political Parties: the Emergence of Europarties

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  1. Europeanisation of Political Parties: the Emergence of Europarties Enrico Calossi, PhD enrico.calossi@eui.eu Università di Pisa – European University Institute

  2. Europeanisation Twodirectionsprocess: To-Down: National Parties assume practices and organisationalframeworksto face problematicscomingfrom the EU level or in imitationof EU level or sisterpartiesorganisations. Bottom – Up : devolution ofpower, souvraignity or prerogativesto the EU Levels

  3. Strasbourg Brussels

  4. EP Party Groups and Parties at the European Level (Literature review) • EP Party Groups: Attinà 1990; Bardi 1994; Bowler e Farrell 1995; Corbett, Jacobs e Shackleton 1995; Bay-Brzinski 1995; Attinà 1997; Hix e Lord 1997; Raunio 1997; Kreppel 2002; Noury 2002; Faas 2003; McElroy 2003, Bardi e Ignazi 2004 • PELs (or Transnational Federations): Bell e Lord 1996; Hix 1996; 2002b; Hix e Lord 1997; Dietz 2000; Ladrech 2000; Delwit, Külahci e van De Walle 2004; Johansson e Raunio 2005; Jansen 2006; Hanley 2008.

  5. Terminological problems and confusion between: EuroParties, European Parties, Party Federation, Transnational Party. • Normative Aspects art. 138A Maastricht (1992): “Political Parties at European Level are important to create an European awareness amongst European citizens”.

  6. Party in Public Office (ex: in parliament, government) Party in Central Office (ex: leader, national assembly, congress) Party on the Ground (ex: members, basic units) Katz and Mair scheme for party organisation

  7. EP Party Groups Party in Public Office Political Parties at the European Level Party in Central Office National Parties Party on the Ground Europarty Scheme

  8. EP Party Groups Procedures to be recognised: a) Each political group is assumed to have a set of shared principles, and political groups that cannot demonstrate this may be disbanded b) 25 MEPs from at least 7 countries c) Publications of EP Party Groups and personal budgets

  9. Evolution of EP Composition

  10. Group Sub-parties Leader(s) MEPs European People's Party (EPP) European People's Party (EPP) Joseph Daul 271 +1 unaffiliated national party Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D) Party of European Socialists (PES) Hannes Swoboda 190 +2 unaffiliated national parties Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party (ELDR) Guy Verhofstadt 85 European Democratic Party (EDP) + 3 independent politicians 52 European Green Party (EGP) Daniel Cohn-Bendit 58 The Greens–European Free Alliance (Greens–EFA) European Free Alliance (EFA) Rebecca Harms + 2 unaffiliated national party + 2 independent politicians European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists (AECR) Jan Zahradil European Christian Political Movement (ECPM) + 2 independent politicians Party of the European Left (PEL) Lothar Bisky 34 European United Left–Nordic Green Left (GUE-NGL) Nordic Green Left Alliance (NGLA) + 9 unaffiliated national parties EFD + 8 unaffiliated national parties Francesco Speroni Non-Inscrits (NI) 11 national parties 30

  11. Some relevant National Party Affiliations • EPP: PDL (Italy), UMP (France), CDU (Germany), PP (Spain), PO (Poland) • S&D: PD (Italy), Labour Party (UK), PS (France), PSOE (Spain) • ALDE: FDP (Germany), LDs (UK) • Greens-EFA: Grunen (Germany), Verts (France), - SNP (UK), PNV (Spaing), N-VA (Belgium) • ECR: Cons (UK), Pis (Poland), • Gue-NGL: Die Linke (Germany), Syriza (Greece), EU (Spain), • EFD: Northern League (Italy), UKIP (UK)

  12. Political Parties at the European Level Procedures to be recognised (1) • Reg. (CE) n. 2004/2003: Criteria for recognisement and funding a) 7 deputees (MEPs, Nat. or Reg.) or 3% of votes from ¼ of member countries (7 countries) ; b) Respect of fundamental values of the European Union (respect for human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, rule of law, human rights, including rights of persons belonging to minorities). c) Having its seat in a Member state (ASBL in Belgium) d) Having partecipating or having declared the intention to participate European elections. • Reg (CE) 1524/2007: a) Establishment of Political Foundation at the European Level (ex. FEPS, CES, Liberal Forum, Trasform) b) prohibition for EP groups to campaing European Elections. Only PELs can campaign

  13. Political Parties at the European Level Procedures to be recognised (2) • Factsheet Commission. Rules at 2009 (financial aspects) publishing its revenue and expenditure annually; publishing a statement of its assets and liabilities annually; providing a list of its donors and their donations exceeding €500; not accepting anonymous donations; it must not accepting donations exceeding €12,000 per year and per donor; not accepting donations from the budgets of political groups of the European Parliament; not accepting more than 40% of a national political party's annual budget; not accepting donations from any company over which the public authorities may exercise a dominant influence; getting at least 15% of its budget from sources other than its European Union funding; submitting its application by the 30 September before the financial year that it wants funding for.

  14. Parties at European Level • Federations: Socialists, People/Christian Democrats, Liberals (70s) Greens (1984) • PELs in 2012: European People's Party (Christian democracy, Liberal conservatism) - 2004 Party of European Socialists (Social democracy) - 2004 European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party (Liberalism) - 2004 European Green Party (Environmentalism) - 2004 Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists (Conservatism, anti-federalism)- 2010 Party of the European Left (Socialism, communism) - 2004 European Democratic Party (Centrism) - 2004 European Free Alliance (Regionalism, Independentism) - 2004 European Alliance for Freedom (Euroscepticism) - 2011 EUDemocrats (Euroscepticism) €0.3m 2006 European Christian Political Movement (Social conservatism, Christian right) - 2010 Alliance of European National Movements (Nationalism, Euroscepticism) - 2012 • Disbanded Parties: Alliance of Independent Democrats in Europe (2006 to 2008; Alliance for Europe of the Nations (2004 to 2009)

  15. 9/16/10 17:49

  16. European Affiliations: National Governments (February 15, 2012)

  17. Fig. 2: L’organizzazione interna del PLE Member Parties MEPs & Invited Council (board) Congress Leaders’ Meeting Working groups and thematic organisations Treasurer President Political Foudations at the European Level Presidency Political Line General Secretar General Secretary Legenda: Nomination Power Influence and decisions Organisational and decisional scheme of Parties at the European Level

  18. Public Financing of Parties at European Level (Reg. 2004/2003) Total Amount (thousands of Euros): • 2004: 3.215; 2005: 7.228; 2006: 8.127; 2010: 11.075 • (every year +2%) • How they are shared: • 15% shared in equal parts amongst all the PELs, • 85% on proportional basis how according to the received MEPs’ signatories. • Matching founds: • EU funds 85% max of PELs expenditures. 15 % others

  19. Functions of PELs • Articolations and aggregation of interests • Vote structuring • Political communication and socialisation • Development of organisation of political participation • Political personnel recruitment • Public Policies Formulation “Plainly, party government does not operate at the European Level” (Hix 2002, p. 297)

  20. Some observations • Europarties as quintessential of cartel party • Other functions by Europarties (EP Groups and PELs): Legitimacy. Resourceused by national party in their national domains. • Main field of competition amongst Europarties: not elections, but national party affiliation.

  21. Further research • Parties and Elections in Europe • European Parliament Research Group (LSE) • Standing Group on Political Parties (ECPR) • ParlGov (University of Bremen) • Votewatch (ULB) • EPERN (EU Parties, Elections, Referendum Network) • Observatory on Political Parties and Representation