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Welcome to ENGSCI 232 SC Computer Systems Lecture 1

Welcome to ENGSCI 232 SC Computer Systems Lecture 1

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Welcome to ENGSCI 232 SC Computer Systems Lecture 1

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  1. Welcome toENGSCI 232 SCComputer SystemsLecture 1 Department of Engineering Science The University of Auckland ENGSCI 232SC Lecture 1

  2. Course Objectives : 1 • Gain an understanding of digital circuit components, data representation, and some important aspects of computer architecture including memory and input/output. ENGSCI 232SC Lecture 1

  3. Course Objectives: 2 • Develop skills and confidence in using laboratory equipment and the design and implementation of hardware/software interfaces, in particular the use of the PC parallel port to communicate with external digital logic circuits via Visual Basic program code. ENGSCI 232SC Lecture 1

  4. Lecture Topics • 1. Introductory Concepts • 2. Digital Gates • 3. Combinatory Circuits • 4. Synchronous Circuits • 5. Data Representation • 6. Instruction Sets • 7. Memory • 8. Input/Output • 9. Architecture ENGSCI 232SC Lecture 1

  5. Laboratories • ENGSCI232 laboratories will begin in Week 2, Wednesdays 9-11, in 439.433. Completion of lab work is compulsory. Failure to complete will lead to a DNC (Did Not Complete) grade. • Laboratory tasks and associated assignment questions will contribute 40% to the final mark. • ENGSCI272 labs will be organised by Dr Nielsen. ENGSCI 232SC Lecture 1

  6. Exam • A 2 hour written examination will contribute 60% to the final mark, with the condition that the final mark cannot exceed the exam mark by more than 10%. • No calculators permitted in the exam. ENGSCI 232SC Lecture 1

  7. Resources and Results • Coursework results, announcements etc will appear on the course website • http://www.esc.auckland.ac.nz/teaching/engsci232sc ENGSCI 232SC Lecture 1

  8. Course Staff • Jim Greenslade – Lecturer, and Course Organiser Department of Engineering Science Room 439.233 ext 88390 j.greenslade@auckland.ac.nz • Dr Mason will lecture from Week 7 onwards. ENGSCI 232SC Lecture 1

  9. Questions • Any questions about Course Organisation? ENGSCI 232SC Lecture 1

  10. Introductory Concepts • The term “digital” occurs throughout most areas of everyday life (not only computers but home appliances, phones, transportation, entertainment, medical science and practice etc) • We will first cover some of the underlying concepts and terminology on which to build a good understanding of this area. ENGSCI 232SC Lecture 1

  11. Numerical Representation • Quantities are measured and represented in on of two forms: • 1. Analogue: a quantity represented by a voltage, current or meter movement proportional to the value of the quantity. Eg mercury thermometer, audio mic. • 2. Digital: quantities represented by digits rather then proportional quantities. ENGSCI 232SC Lecture 1

  12. eg Digital watch • So, analogue=continuous • Digital = discrete (step by step) and hence no ambiguity of interpretation. • Categorise the following: • Ten-position switch, current flowing from an electrical outlet, sand grains on the beach, car speedometer. ENGSCI 232SC Lecture 1

  13. Digital and Analogue Systems • A digital system is a combination of devices which manipulate logical information in digital form (ie discrete values). May be mechanical, magnetic or pneumatic but most often electrical. • Analogue system contains devices which manipulate quantities that vary over a continuous range eg simple dimmer switch, volume output to a radio speaker. ENGSCI 232SC Lecture 1

  14. Advantages of Digital Techniques • Easier to design • Information storage is easier • Accuracy and precision are greater • Operation can be programmed • Digital circuits are less affected by noise • More digital circuitry can be fabricated on IC chips ENGSCI 232SC Lecture 1

  15. Limitations of Digital Techniques • The real world is analogue !! • Often we need to go through conversion steps. • Analogue-to-Digital converter (ADC) • Digital-to-Analogue converter (DAC) • eg music CD. Starts as analogue sound, digitised onto CD, played in CD player, converted back to analogue to feed speakers and hence to your “analogue ear”. ENGSCI 232SC Lecture 1

  16. Decimal Number Systems • Remember that the decimal number system comprises 10 digits. When representing a number, the least significant digit is on the right and is weighted as 10^0, the next digit being weighted 10^1 etc. In counting, when we reach 9 we need to reset the value of the current position back to 0 and carry a 1 through to the next (more significant) position. ENGSCI 232SC Lecture 1

  17. Binary Number System • Very similar except we are now working in Base 2 so have only 2 digits (0,1). • Least significant digit is 2^0, then moving right to left the weighting increases 2^1, 2^2 etc • When counting, after reaching 1 we must reset back to zero and carry 1 through to the next (more significant) place. ENGSCI 232SC Lecture 1

  18. Revision • What is the equivalent of the binary number 1101011 ? • What is the next binary number after this number (ie add 1) ? • How many decimal numbers can be represented using 7 binary bits ? ENGSCI 232SC Lecture 1

  19. Digital Circuits • Comprise electronic devices which will respond predictably to input voltages which lie within an allowable “zero” range and allowable “one” range. Subsequent outputs will also lie within one of these two ranges. • Systems may use different voltage levels eg a 1 may be represented by 3.7 volts or 5 volts depending on the system. ENGSCI 232SC Lecture 1

  20. Logic Circuits • Basic digital components are really just switches (individual transistors). • To be of use they are configured to perform “logical” operations. • We will explore and utilise chips which perform such logical tasks as: • AND, OR, NOT, XOR ENGSCI 232SC Lecture 1

  21. Integrated Circuits (ICs) • Various IC technology is available: • TTL (transistor-transistor logic) uses the bipolar transistor as its main circuit element • CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) uses the enhanced-mode MOSFET as its principal element. ENGSCI 232SC Lecture 1

  22. Parallel and Serial Transmission • Computer are constantly transferring information. This may be over sub-millimeter ranges within ICs, millimeter range between functional units within the computer, meter range between a computer and locally attached peripheral devices (scanners printers etc) or long range between computers world-wide. ENGSCI 232SC Lecture 1

  23. Parallel • A local printer may be connected using a parallel cable in which case all 8 bits of a character can be transmitted simultaneously (each bits travels on a separate wire within the cable). This has the benefit of speed but adds considerable complexity and is not practical for longer distance communication. ENGSCI 232SC Lecture 1

  24. Serial • A serial connection normally involves a single wire being used to send a stream of bits (sequentially). This is inherently slower but is easier and cheaper to implement and to use over any distance. ENGSCI 232SC Lecture 1

  25. Computer Memory • Often the main memory (RAM) of a computer uses ICs containing millions of “latches” or “flip-flops”. These are capable of being in only one of 2 states (on or off, 1 or 0) and can change state very quickly when new data is applied to the data bus and “latched” into a particular memory address (or location). ENGSCI 232SC Lecture 1

  26. Major Parts of a Digital Computer • Input Unit – through which data is feed to the computer. • Memory Unit – for storage of instructions and data. • Control Unit – to interpret instructions and signal all other units to achieve execution. • ALU – Arithmetic and Logical calculations and decision making. • Output Unit – displays or prints processed data. ENGSCI 232SC Lecture 1

  27. Next Week • We will look in more detail at Digital Logic Gates. • In the lab this week you will get an introduction to some logic gates and how to connect these together. ENGSCI 232SC Lecture 1