World Cities and Other Big Cities Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Primate Cities Forward Capitals
World Cities • There are 3 different levels of world cities, Alpha only 10 worldwide, Beta, and Gamma • As you move to Beta and Gamma the less important they are on a worldwide scale • Each city is tied with each other, but they usually specify and specialize in one area. • This is Globalization at its core. These cities cross state and international borders creating the globalized world as we know it today. • Economic effects will be felt worldwide through all the foreign exchange and stocks. One falls and the others go with it.
USA Alpha Cities • Los Angeles:this is the media capital of the world. Movies, entertainment, TV, News Papers, and music recording. Also the largest manufacturing area in USA • New York: One of the “Big Three”, truly an Alpha city, Trade and Stock Exchange, NYSE • Chicago: Financial center, corporate headquarters, examples: General Electric, Boeing, and Schwinn, 11 fortune 500 companies home
European Alpha Cities • London- One of “Big Three”, International business and trade • Paris-Fashion and international business • Milan-Arts, design, architecture, international capital of industrial and modern design • Frankfurt- AKA “Bankfurt”, over 300 national and international banks
Asian Alpha Cities • Tokyo-last of the “Big Three”, home to 47 Global 500 companies, highest salary in world along with the most expensive city in world • Hong Kong- Trade and Stock exchange, Shipping, one of the 4 Asian Dragons • Singapore-manufacturing, port city (shipping), and foreign exchange, one of the 4 Asian Dragons
Primate Cities • Primate cities are cities are at least 2x as big as any other city in the state • That means it is the social, political, and economic center of the state • Positives: Pull factors and central location can help with focus of the state, focus of development for state, agglomeration of economic activity, large markets, higher education, flow of ideas, increased transportation/infrastructure, globalization/global trade • Negatives: Overcrowding, pollution, crime, other social issues, unequal development, unequal distribution of wealth, centrifugal forces, Brain Drain, environmental impact, slums/favelas • Examples: London and Paris (non-colonial) and many other examples in the semi-periphery and periphery due to colonization
Forward Capitals • The relocation of a city/capital to a peripheral location • May be for either economic or strategic purposes • Example: Brasilia, Brazil • Application of definition because most cities in Brazil are located on coast, creating massive favelas • Brasilia moved to the interior in hopes to “pull” people away from the big cities in Rio de Janieroand others