Dog Breeds ID Vet tech
History of dogs • One of the first animals to be domesticated by humans. • Modern dogs are most directly descended from the wolf. • Ancestory of entire dog family • Miacis: small carnivorous animals, lived in trees 40 or 50 million years ago. • Descendants of Miacis were: • Daphaenus-large boned animals w/long tail • Hesperocyon: small, coyote-like dogs that spent little time in trees and began to hunt on ground. • Tomarctus- directly descended from Hesperocyon
Tomarctus • Fathers of modern dogs • They were built for speed, endurance, and leaping. They are only surpassed in speed by the cheetah. • Tomarctus evolved into our modern: dogs, wolves, foxes, coyotes, fennecs, and jackals. • Has four major lines or groups classifying the modern dog: • Herd dogs • Hounds and terriers • The Northern and toy dogs • Guard dogs
The Sporting Group • Develop for hunting and pursuit of game. • The Pointer: short-haired, agile, strong, affectionate, and does not require a lot of attention. Earned its name for stance taking in presence of game. • German Shorthaired Pointer: versatile dog with extraordinary hunting skills in assorted weather and terrain situations. • German Wirehaired Pointer: A crossbreed, with keen nose, hard and bristly hair, intelligent, but with an unfrinedily demeanor towards strangers.
Labrador Retriever • From Newfoundland • Short coupled, strongly built, very active, with a great sense of smell • Active water dog, will go into water in any weather. Has short, thick, water-restinant hair • Dependable. Great service dog for blind, search and rescue
Irish Setter • Common ancestry to English setter • Distinctive red color. • Used for hunting all game because of speed, boldness & toughness. • Very loyal and lovable. An ideal show dog • Slow learners but once they have it, they retain it
American Cocker Spaniel • Smallest member of the sporting dog family • Name from proficiency hunting woodcock • Excellent companion dog. Sensitive and sweet. • Other cocker spaniels: • The Brittany: more like a setter, a shooting dog, jovial, and great sense of smell • The Springer: fastest spaniel and more compact.
Weimaraner • Developed in 19th century, as a noble hunting dog, often called a gun dog. • Hunted big game: wild boar, bear, and deer, later would be used to hunt smaller game: waterfowl, rabbits, and foxes • Great at tracking and pointing out game • May have black or gray coat
Golden Retriever • Developed in Scotland mid 19th century as gun dog for fetching shot game and returning it. • Love water and have dense inner coat that keeps them adequate warm in most conditions. • Easy to train, need lots of exercise, they have tendency to raom • 3rd most popular family dog in United States • Used as guide dogs, hearing dogs, detection, as well as search and rescue dogs. • Live span 10-12 years
The Hound Group Two Types Hunt by scent Hunt by sight
Afghan Hound • Hunt by sight, in packs, they are sure-footed and fast on all terrain. • Require lots of grooming and hair care.
Basset Hound • From France, great sense of smell for trailing rabbits, deer, raccoons, foxes, and other game. • Short-legged with heavy bones, good with children, and affectionate. • When hunting Basset hounds have great endurance and determination. • May be hard to house-break as pets because they are stubborn at times.
Beagle • One of oldest breeds, actual origin unknown • Noted rabbit hunter • Cheerful • Friendly • Excellent pet
Bloodhound • From 3rd century, used for tracking people • Lost children, buried miners, earthquake victims • Bloodhounds are Not attack dogs, they are somewhat shy, and sensitive to kindness. • Can follow a scent several hours old
Dachshund • 15th century, Germany. Used for hunting badgers.Dachs means badger; hund means dog. • Three types: short-haired, wired-haired, long-haired • Three sizes: normal, miniature, and toy • Dachshund are clever, bold, “barkers” and good watch dogs.
Greyhound • Ancient breed and favorite of royalty. Hunted all game (deer, wild boar, fox, etc.) • Major asset: speed. Greyhound can reach speed of 40 mph. • Needs lots of exercise, would survive roaming country by killing small animals.
Whippet • Found 1610 in England, were descendants of greyhounds • However because of medium size were deemed unsuitable for hunting big game • Trained to hunt rats and rabbits • Have few health problems • Today are used for dog racing • “The poor man’s racehorse” • Run at speeds up to 35mph
The Terrier Group Two Groups Long-legged Short-legged
Welsh Terrier • Developed to hunt in dens and work in pack with hounds. • Today, consider an apartment dog/ watch dog • Traits are friendly and outgoing
Cairn Terrier • Oldest terrier from Scotland used for hunting burrowing prey • Left pawed, which indicates superior sense of smell • They shed very little, need daily walks, and live about 12-17 years • Toto from was Wizard of Oz, was a Cairn Terrier
Working Dog Group Guard Dogs, sled dogs, police dogs, rescue dogs, and messenger dogs
Doberman Pinscher • Developed in Germany, in 1890 and named after Louis Dobermann. • Used as watchdogs, police dogs, war dogs. • Male and females have different temperaments. • Females are calm but wary of strangers. • Males aggressive and need disciplined owner • Often live 15 to 20 years
Great Dane • Develop in Germany, 1800’s but on hieroglyphics from 3000BC. • Used for hunting wild boar and bear because of great size as well as a “battle dog” and watchdog. • Traits: spirited, friendly, and dependable.
Great Pyrenees • Central Asia or Siberia • Guardians to sheppard’s flocks. • Great sense of smell & sight • Great size & strength • Affectionate house pet but needs lots of space, exercise, & grooming • Pack dog in ski areas, rescue dogs, messenger dogs in WWI. • “Great Dog of the Mountain”
Rottweiler • Developed in German town of Rottweil. • Also known as Drover dogs and used for herding cattle to and from the market • Rottweiler are massive, powerful, and very protective of their owners. • Obedient, intelligent, and excellent companion dogs.
Saint Bernard • Appeared 1660-1670 in the hospice St. Bernard de Menthon. • Monks used dogs for companionship and took them on mercy trips • Monks discovered Saint Benard’s were excellent pathfinders in drifting snow and sense of smell. • Traits- obedient, extremely loyal, and loves the company of humans
Siberian Husky • Developed Northeastern Asia, endurance sled dog, then brought to Alaska circa 1909. • Dominate Alaska Sweepstake Race for next decade • Naturally friendly, independent, and gentle. • Lacks aggressive or protective tendencies but can be stubborn and ill-humored around children.
Komondor • Found by Russian, developed in Hungary. • Traits- great size, strength, courageous demeanor, heavy white coat of hair. • Breed will fight wolves, bears, and other large foes to protect flock.
Mastiff • Developed in England, 19th century. • Known for size, strength, and loyalty. • Rarely bark and are natural guard dogs. • 40% Old English Bulldog, 60% English Mastiff • Butkus from Rocky movies is a Bullmastiff
Herding Dogs Group Developed to help with livestock activities
Border Collie • Two forms: rough-coated or smooth-coated. • Unknown origin, today more of family dog • Traits- kind, sensitive, loyal but wary of strangers • Versatile animals: rescue dogs, guide dogs for blind, and police dogs. • Need frequent brushing to keep hair unknotted.
German Shepherd • Several theories to breed creation • Cross between various herding and farm dogs • Mating between herding and farm dogs with wolves. • Courageous, obedient, and loyal • Messenger dogs in wars, police dogs, and guides for blind
Old English Sheepdog • 19th century, England with unknown ancestry • Traits- muscular and steady with the gait like a bear. • Great herd dog, sled dog, and retriever • Great family dog.
Welsh Corgi The Cardigan The Pembroke Came with Flemish people over English channel to Wales same family as Chow Chow with no dachshund characteristics Short body , straighter legs, lighter bones, pointed ears and finer textured hair Easily excited • From Wales, same family that produced the Dachshund • Ears are rounded, long tail. • Both dogs are fast for their sizes, intelligent, and easy to train.
Australian Cattle Dog • Breed 19th century in Queensland, Australia for driving cattle long distances, biting or nipping the cattle to keep them in line. • Medium sized, very active/high energy, requiring a lot of exercise in two color brown or black. • Little maintenance
Australian Shepherd • Developed late 19th/early 20th century in the western United States on ranches. Often called “Aussies” • Highly trainable, energetic, excellent rescue dogs • Known for “smiling” while barring teeth.
Toy Dog Group Toy because of size Some as small as 1.5 pounds Popular as house pets
Chihuahua • Smallest breed in the world. • Develop in 9th century, named after state of Chihuahua in Mexico • Oldest breed on the American continent • Companion dog noted for energy, courage, affection, and intelligence • Chihuahua do not like other dogs • Two types: • Short-haired • Wavy-haired
Pug • 400 BC., oriental origin from Buddhist monks in Tibet • Compact body, very muscular, deeply wrinkled forehead, with tender eyes. • Very affectionate, love attention, and children • Easily trained and intelligent
Yorkshire Terrier • Developed in England for catching rats and vermin • Its shiny coat of hair makes it a favorite lapdog • Hair needs constant care and care • Adults with lots of free time should have these dogs.
Shih Tzu • Origin 624 AD, given to Chinese court and bred in the Forbidden City of Peking • Shih Tzu means lion • Brought to England in 1930 and has a distinctive arrogant walk. • Needs daily hair maintenance
Maltese • 19th century, from Mediterranean city of Malta • Bred to be cuddly • Traits: black button nose and shiny hair • Needs constant hair maintenance but little shedding.
Pomeranian • Developed in 18th century in Pomerania in Central Europe • Made popular by royals such as QueenVictoria • Pomeranian can be many colors • They are sturdy, healthy dogs • Nervous, playful, stubborn, and bark a lot
Non-Sporting Dogs Companion Dogs
Dalmatian • Origin is of great debate. Depictions have been found in ancient Egypt, Asia, and Africa. • Known to not stay in one place for very long (nomadic) • Used as war dogs, draft dogs, and herd dogs • Great for hunting as bird dogs, trail hounds, and pack hunting wild boar and bear. • Used more importantly as carriage or coach dogs • Will follow master on foot, horseback, or carriage • Dalmatians are calm, loyal, and thrive on human companionship.
Lhasa Apso • From Tibet, used as guard dog because of quick hearing and instincts for telling friends from enemies. • Easily trained, obedient, and affectionate to owners.
Poodle • Origin Germany, known as Pudel- to splash in the water, • The national dog of France • Three sizes: standard, miniature, and toy • Originally were water dogs or retrievers. Now mostly show-dogs that do circus tricks.
Chow Chow • 13th century AD, Northern China • Evolved from gray wolf • Original teddy bear was modeled off the Chow Chow • Not very active but need exercise and shed a lot
Keeshond • Developed in Netherlands in 18th century. • Medium size, black and silver dog that is agile and obedient • Loud distinctive bark • Known as a comfort dog and was used at ground zero after9/11
Choosing a Dog • Selecting a breed • Large or small dog? • Active or quiet? • What type of hair? • What is the purpose of the dog? • Hunting, protection, companionship, exercise, showing • How much will the dog cost over its entire life?