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BASIC PRINCIPALS OF REINFORCEMENT. TWO TYPES: -Positive Reinforcement -Negative Reinforcement. Positive Reinforcement.
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BASIC PRINCIPALS OF REINFORCEMENT TWO TYPES: -Positive Reinforcement -Negative Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement • Positive Reinforcement is best defined as the presentationof a desirable consequence, following the occurrence of a specificbehavior, which increasesthe probability that the behavior will occur more frequently in the future. -Example: Bobby approaches his mother and uses his words to request a cookie. Mother immediately provides Bobby with a piece of cookie. In the future Bobby uses his words more frequently to request cookies. ANTECEDENT BEHAVIOR CONSEQUENCE Bobby is hungry. He approaches Mother and requests a Cookie. Mother provides a piece of cookie.
Negative Reinforcement • Negative Reinforcement is best defined as the removal of, or avoidance of an undesirable situation, following the occurrence of a specific behavior which increases the probability that the behavior will occur more frequently in the future. • Two Types: Escape and Avoidance (of something aversive). -Example: Timmy is having a tantrum in the middle of the grocery store because his Mother has refused to buy him a candy bar. After listening to his tantrum for 5 minutes Timmy’s mother gives in and buys him a candy bar. He immediately stops his tantrum. ANTECEDENTBEHAVIOR CONSEQUENCE Timmy is having a tantrum. Mother gives in and buys candy. Mom escapes Timmy’s tantrum.
Negative Reinforcement - Example: Yesterday while walking home from school Ronnie was approached by the school bully, who proceeded to knock Ronnie’s glasses off and give him a black eye for no apparent reason. While walking home today Ronnie sees the bully approaching and quickly crosses the street and runs home without incident. ANTECEDENT BEHAVIOR CONSEQUENCE Bully is approaching Ronnie crosses street and runs Ronnie avoids being beaten up
Reinforcers Two Types of Reinforcers: Primary and Secondary 1. Primary reinforcers: are defined as items that have great value to us through naturally occurring biological processes. No learning is required. Food, water, air, sleep, shelter, physical contact with others
Comparison of Positive and Negative Reinforcement PositiveNegative Follows a behavior Follows a behavior Increases behavior Increases behavior Involves the presentation of a desirable stimulus Involves the removal or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus
Reinforcers 2. Secondary reinforcers: are defined as items or activities that become valuable to us through a learning process, or through pairing with primary reinforcers. money, games, high-5’s, hugs, praise, recess, computer, books, coloring, recess
Reinforcers FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF REINFORCERS • Immediacy of presentation: Time between the occurrence of the behavior and receipt of reinforcer. The sooner the better. • Quantity, quality, and duration: How much reinforcement is being given, how valuable is it, for how long is it available. 3. Deprivation and satiation: Have I recently had it, or has it been a while. *Chocolate is highly reinforcing for me if I have not had any recently, but not reinforcing if I just ate an entire box of chocolates. • Personal preferences: What may be reinforcing to me, may not be reinforcing to others.
Schedules of Reinforcement Specify the performance conditions under which reinforcement will be made available. • Continuous schedule: Reinforcement is given immediately following each and every occurrence of a specified behavior. *Typically used when teaching the acquisition of new skills. • Intermittent schedule: Reinforcement is given on some but not all occasions of which a specified behavior occurs. Typically used to maintain or increase the performance of skills that have been learned (maintenance and fluency). 4 types: Interval and Ratio and Fixed and Variable
Schedules of Reinforcement 1. Fixed Ratio: Reinforcement is provided only after a specified number ofresponse has occurred. Ex. Fixed Ratio 5 Schedule – Individual receives reinforcement each time he/she reads 5 sight words in a row correctly. • Variable Ratio: Reinforcement is provided following the occurrence of a non-specific number of responses based around an average number of responses Ex. Variable Interval 10 Schedule – Individual would receive reinforcement after reading an average of 10 sight words in a row correctly, but might receive reinforcement after reading 3, 7, 11, or 15 words correctly. Ratio Schedules Variable Fixed
Schedules of Reinforcement 1. Fixed Interval: Reinforcement is provided only after a specified interval of time has elapsed. Ex. Fixed Interval 3 Minute Schedule. The individual receives reinforcement for the first response that occurs immediately after 3 continuous minutes of uninterrupted oral reading. 2. Variable Interval: Reinforcement is provided following the first response after a non-specific interval of time has elapsed, based upon an average amount of time. Ex. Variable Interval 5 Minute Schedule: The individual receives reinforcement immediately after reading orally for an average of 5 minutes, but may receive reinforcement after 1, 3, 7, 8, or 11 minutes. Interval Schedules Variable Fixed