j danrothwell in mixed company communicating in small groups and teams
Chapter Three inmixedcompany
Two Primary Dimensions of Groups inmixedcompany Task (Productivity) – work/performance/goal achievement Social (Cohesiveness) – relationships between members and their impact on the group as a whole
Strategies For Building Group Cohesiveness inmixedcompany Encourage compatible membership In mandated groups, look at shared interests/hobbies, similar backgrounds, beliefs, values, etc. Develop shared goals Accomplish tasks Develop a positive history of cooperation Promote acceptance of group members
The Four Periodic Phases ofGroup Development inmixedcompany Forming – the joining phase Storming – the tension phase Norming – the (development of) rules/conduct phase Performing – the goal achievement phase
Forming Phase – Why We Join Groups inmixedcompany Common reasons for joining groups include: • Belonging • Interpersonal attraction (to group members) • Attraction to group activities & goals • Meaning & identity • Other – networking, mandated joining (e.g., juries, military draft)
Diversity & Group Membership: the Twenty Percent Rule inmixedcompany Discrimination against minorities & women drops substantially when no less than 20% of a group and no fewer than 2 members are ethnic minorities and/or women. What does the research show about diversity and group membership?
The Forming Periodic Phase & Competent Communication inmixedcompany Forming Periodic Phase – (Joining Phase) Express positive attitudes and feelings Appear friendly, open, and interested Encourage a “getting-to-know-you” conversation Find areas of commonality and cooperation Establish clear group goals
The Storming Phase – Feeling The Tension inmixedcompany Primary Tension – Initial uneasiness and anxiety upon meeting (cautious communication, hesitancy, uncomfortable silence) Secondary Tension – later stage when decision-making brings conflicts and disagreements among members who struggle to define their status and roles in the group.
The Storming Periodic Phase & Competent Communication inmixedcompany Storming Periodic Phase – (‘Tension’ Phase) • Tolerate, even encourage disagreement • Keep a civil tongue • Be an active listener
Norming – Group Regulation & Two Types of Norms inmixedcompany Norms Explicit Norms Implicit Norms
Norms: The Why and Where inmixedcompany Why have norms? Three sources of norms in small groups: • From outside the group - (e.g.,“parent” organization) • Influence of a single member – charismatic individuals • From within the group itself – trial & error
Conformity: Bowing to Group Pressure inmixedcompany Conditions that foster greater conformity to group norms: • More cohesiveness = more conformity • Increased task importance = more conformity • Long-term group membership = more conformity • Reduced member status or less acceptance by group = more conformity
How Groups Address Non-Conformity inmixedcompany Reason Seduction Coercion Ostracism
The Norming Periodic Phase & Competent Communicators inmixedcompany Norming Periodic Phase – (Rules and Conduct) • Adapt communication to norms of the group • Encourage change when norms are excessively rigid • Encourage change when norms are too elastic
The Performing Phase – Social Loafers inmixedcompany What is a Social Loafer? What does this group member’s behavior look like? More common in Individualist or Collectivist cultures? Why?
Individual vs Group Performance inmixedcompany Conditions • Broad-range task • Neither have expertise • Both experts, complex tasks • Individual expert, informed group Group Superior to Individual Reasons • Pool knowledge, group remembering • Synergy • Share the load, teamwork • Error correction, synergy
Individual vs Group Performance inmixedcompany Conditions • Individual expert, uninformed group • Groups establish mediocrity norms • Group becomes too large • Simple task • Time is a critical factor Individual Superior to Group Reasons • Pooling ignorance, negative synergy • Insufficient motivation to excel • Difficulty coordinating, social loafing • Minimal resources required • Groups too slow
The Performing Phase & Communication Competence inmixedcompany Performing Periodic Phase – (Goal Achievement Phase) • Focus on the task • Encourage participation from group members
Competent Communication and Group Development inmixedcompany Summary Forming Storming Norming Performing
Newcomers & Group Development inmixedcompany
Group Characteristics Affecting Newcomer Acceptance inmixedcompany Level of group development Level of group performance Number of existing group members Group turnover rate
Newcomer Strategies For Gaining Group Acceptance inmixedcompany Do your homework: is the group a good fit for you? Play the role of newcomer Seek mentors within the group Collaborate with other newcomers