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MITOSIS REVIEW

MITOSIS REVIEW

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MITOSIS REVIEW

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  1. MITOSIS REVIEW Chapter 10 Test

  2. ESSAY #1 • How is cancer related to the cell cycle? • Do not have a normally functioning cell cycle

  3. How are cancer cells different from most cells? • Divide excessively and can invade other tissue

  4. ESSAY #2 • STEM CELLS • Cells that can turn into almost any kind of cell (not yet differentiated). • Formed a few days after an egg and sperm join.

  5. From embryos

  6. Adult stem cells

  7. Cord Blood

  8. Stem Cell Animations • "How Embryonic Stem Cell Lines are Made" Biology Animation Library :: Dolan DNA Learning Center • Stem Cell Animation

  9. Essay #2 (cont.) SOURCES • Umbilical cord blood • Fetal tissue • Adult bone marrow • Embryonic stem cells

  10. Essay #2 (cont.) PROS • treat disorders like spinal damage, Parkinson’s disease, leukemia • Make heart and nerve tissue in the lab

  11. Essay #2 CONS • Use embryos (kill them) Click on Creating Stem Cells • Don’t have a lot of success yet • Who funds it (private v. government)

  12. ASEXUAL One parent Two Identical offspring SEXUAL Two parents 4 different offspring 1. Sexual and Asexual

  13. 2. Chromatin, chromosomes, chromatids (all DNA + protein) • Interphase – loose chromatin • Prophase –tightly coiled sister chromatids form through metaphase • Anaphase + Telophase –sister chromatids separate to single chromosomes

  14. 3. Nucleosomes and Histones • 8 histone proteins are wrapped with chromosomes to tightly coil into chromatids • Histones + chromosomes = nucleosome • DNA packaging, 3D animation with advanced narration and labels :: Dolan DNA Learning Center

  15. Prokaryotes (no nucleus) Binary fission Eukaryotes (nucleus) mitosis 4. Asexual Reproduction

  16. 5. Phases of Mitosis • PMAT • Prophase • Metaphase • Anaphase • Telophase

  17. 6. Nuclear Envelope Changes • Prophase = nuclear envelope dissolves • Telophase = nuclear envelope reforms How could you tell them apart?

  18. Cytokinesis = Division of the cytoplasm Mitosis = Division of nucleus 7. Diff

  19. Animal Cells Cleavage furrow Plant Cells Cell Plate 8. Cytokinesis

  20. 9. G1+ S + G2 = Interphase • G1= organelle growth (mitochondrion, chloroplasts), and growth of cell • S = DNA synthesis (replication) • G2 = centriole and spindle growth, and growth of cell

  21. Chromatids Centrioles Centromeres Spindle fibers Asters 10. Locate on a dividing cell:

  22. Chromatids Centromeres Centrioles 10. Locate on a dividing cell: Spindle fibers Asters

  23. centrioles chromatids • Asters • Spindle fibers centromeres

  24. 11. What makes chromatids move to poles? • Contraction of spindle fibers • spindle contraction videos

  25. 12. What are cyclins (and Cdk’s)? • Protein regulators of the cell cycle

  26. A lot Blood Skin Digestive tract Not after formed Nerve Muscle 13. Cells Dividing

  27. 13. B Cancer Cells • Cancer cells due to an abnormal cell cycle • Cells grow abnormally and do not stop, even if there are too many Breast cancer cells

  28. What phase? • Chromatin thickens? • Prophase • Nuclear envelope disappears • Prophase • Nuclear envelope reappears • telophase

  29. What phase? • Centrioles move to opposite poles • Prophase • Spindle fibers form • Prophase • Cell plate forms • Cytokinesis/Telophase

  30. Which phase? • Chromosomes line up at the equator • metaphase • Cytoplasm divides • Cytokinesis/Telophase • Nucleoli break down • Prophase • Nucleoli reform • Telophase

  31. 15. As the cell increases in size • The surface area to volume ratio • decreases

  32. 16. Why do cells divide? • cell membrane could not keep up with bringing in enough oxygen/nutrients • DNA can’t keep up

  33. 17. How many chromosomes • Are in each human body cell? • 46

  34. 18. How many times is the reduction • In length of the chromatid than it is in the chromosome form? • 10,000 times

  35. 19. A cell spends what % of time in interphase? • 90%

  36. 20. What is the purpose of p53? • It is the tumor suppressorgene. p53 animation + Rediscovering Biology - Animation Archive • It checks that the DNA is OK. If not, it repairs it or kills the cell. • IF it is faulty, it leads to a lot of cancer.

  37. 21. How does a cell respond to growth • When it comes in contact with other cells? • Stops growing