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SURVEYING HISTORY

SURVEYING HISTORY

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SURVEYING HISTORY

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  1. SURVEYING HISTORY • Surveying dates back 5000 years China India Babylon Egypt

  2. Egyptians • Pyramids • Roads • Property and the Nile River • Taxation

  3. Ancient Techniques • Ropes and Knots • Water Levels • Plumb Levels

  4. Ancient Level

  5. Greeks • 250 BC Archimedes wrote the Sand Reckoner • Established the circumference of the Earth at 300,000 Stadia • 1 Stadia = 1/10 of a mile • 30,000 miles • Actual circumference = 24,900 miles

  6. Eratosthenes

  7. Greeks and Romans • Surveyed for: • Aqueducts • Roadways • Military Camps • Buildings • Taxation

  8. Fall of the Roman Empire • The Dark Ages • The Age of Enlightenment • Navigation • Up until the late 1700’s navigators struggled with the problem of longitude

  9. Latitude • Where you are north or south is relatively easy to calculate using a Sextant

  10. Longitude • But how do you calculate where you are East and West? • Time is the key • It takes 24 hours for the Earth to spin 360° • 1 hours = 1/24 of a spin • Or 360/24 = 15°

  11. Longitude • At the Equator 15° = 1000 miles • 1° = 68 miles • Problem: No reliable clocks existed that could be used at sea.

  12. Longitude • King George III of England offered a reward to anyone who could solve the problem of longitude. • The reward was $15,000,000 to invent a clock that would loose no more than 3 seconds in 24 hours. • The clock had to find longitude within 1/2°

  13. Longitude • 1Hr = 15° • 1minute = .25° • 2 minutes = .5° • At the Equator that would be 34 miles

  14. Longitude • Many famous scientists tried to tackle the problem • Sir Isaac Newton • Galileo • Edmond Haley • John Harrison – a British clockmaker • Invented the Chronometer

  15. Colonial States Survey • Colonial States Survey • Public Land Survey System

  16. What is Surveying? • Locating Points on Land • How do we locate points? • From Land • From Air • From Space

  17. Types of Surveys Plane Surveying • Topographic Survey – Horizontal plane measurements over the surface of the earth, but including indication of changes in elevation.

  18. Types of Surveys • Property Survey – Sometimes called boundary or Cadastral survey. These are the most common and oldest type of plane surveying • Locating property lines • Usually required by law • Route Survey – Surveys along highways, railroads, pipelines and power lines

  19. Types of Surveys • Hydrographic Survey are similar to Topographic but used for rivers, lake and other bodies of water. • Construction Survey – • Used for the purpose of planning a construction project. • Location and layout of buildings • Controlling the dimensions of a structure as it is being built • As Built Survey Cover dimensional changes that occurs during the construction project.

  20. BREAK TIME

  21. READING LEGAL DESCRIPTIONS • Public Land Survey System (PLSS)

  22. Public Land Surveying System

  23. LET’S WRITE A LEGAL DESCRIPTION NE ¼, NW ¼, Section 21, T2S,R2W P.M. Willamette

  24. North American Datum (NAD)

  25. National Geodetic Surveys • Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS)

  26. CORS BTON • BTON